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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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China-Europe Relations

Europe and China were undoubtedly the most important third actors in the Cold War system. As territorial entities and political and economic actors located at the crossroads of the mutual spheres of action of the two superpowers, they played a key role in the evolution and reshaping of the bipolar system. This collection charts China's relations with Europe, and as it moved from East to West throughout the course of the Cold War.

  • October 13, 1960

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Romania, 'Principal Differences in the Communist Movement since the Bucharest Conference and a Series of New Measures regarding Romanian-Chinese Relations'

    The Chinese Embassy in Bucharest concludes that "Romania will agree with the USSR on major differences with China."

  • November 20, 1960

    Record of Conversation between Polish Delegation (Gomułka et al.) and Chinese Communist Politburo Member Liu Shaoqi, Moscow

    Liu Shaoqi, Peng Zhen, and Gomułka discuss problems within the communist bloc since 1956.

  • November 29, 1960

    Record of Conversation between Polish Delegation (Gomułka et al.) and Chinese Communist Politburo Member Liu Shaoqi, Moscow

    Liu Shaoqi and Gomułka review the state of the communist bloc, discussing the Sino-Soviet intervention in North Korea in 1956 and the position of Albania.

  • December 24, 1960

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Romania, 'The Change of Romanian Attitude toward China before and after the Moscow Conference'

    The Chinese Embassy in Bucharest concludes that "the Romanian attitude toward us has warmed."

  • February 01, 1961

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Poland, 'A Summary of the Conversation between Ochab and Comrade Deng Gang'

    Edward Ochab and Deng Gang discuss the "difficult" situation in China following the Great Leap Forward.

  • March 01, 1961

    Transcript of Conversation between Deputy Premier Chen Yi and Romanian Ambassador to China Barbu Zaharescu

    Chen Yi and Ambassador Zaharescu discuss the unity of the socialist bloc.

  • March 28, 1961

    Summary of the Conversation between Comrade Peng Zhen and Romanian Ambassador in China Barbu Zaharescu

    Peng Zhen and Barbu Zaharescu discuss China's "great famine."

  • April 14, 1961

    Memorandum of Conversation between Li Xiannian and Abdyl Kellezi

    Li Xiannian and Abdyl Kellezi review technical and economic assistance lent to Albania by China, Czechoslovakia, and the Soviet Union.

  • April 14, 1961

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Poland, 'Work Summary for the Chinese Embassy in Poland, 1960, and Plans for 1961'

    The Chinese Embassy in Poland reviews the state of China's relations with Poland in 1960-1961.

  • April 15, 1961

    Cable from Wang Bingnan, 'The Situation of the Talk with Ochab'

    Edward Ochab insists that Poland "is friendly toward China."

  • April 18, 1961

    Vice Premier Li Xiannian receives Vice Chairman of the Albanian Council of Ministers Abdyl Kelezi for a Discussion on Assistance Project

    Li Xiannian and Kellezi discuss China's economic aid to Albania.

  • June 02, 1961

    Vice Premier Li Xiannian Meets Czechoslovak Ambassador to China Josef Sedivy to Discuss the Issue of This Years’ Sino-Czechoslovak Trade Negotiations

    Li Xiannian describes the difficulties facing China in the wake of the "disaster" and its inability to meet trade obligations with other socialist countries.

  • August 05, 1961

    Record of a Conversation between Deputy Secretary Huang Zhen and the Polish Ambassador to China

    Huang Zhen and Jerzy Knothe discuss the socialist bloc's foreign policy coordination.

  • August 16, 1961

    Cable from the Party Committee at the Chinese Embassy in Poland, 'Regarding the Results of Discussions related to the Situation in Poland over the Past Six Months'

    The Chinese Embassy reviews Poland's foreign and domestic policies, and concludes that the "Polish United Workers’ Party leadership has a fairly systematic right-deviating brand of nationalism."

  • August 21, 1961

    Cable from the Party Committee of the Chinese Embassy in Romania, 'Summary Bulletin of Romania’s Domestic and International Policy and Sino-Romanian Relations since the Moscow Conference'

    In an exhaustive review of Romanian foreign policy, the Chinese Embassy concludes that the "USSR has a decisive influence over Romania’s foreign policy."

  • October 11, 1961

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Poland, 'Some Noteworthy Situations from the Polish Leadership’s Open Remarks on International Issues'

    The Chinese Embassy reports on Gomułka's foreign policies.

  • October 12, 1961

    Memorandum of Conversation from the Meeting between Vice Premier Li Xiannian and the Albanian Ambassador to China Reis Malile

    Li Xiannian and Reis Malile discuss Albania's position within the socialist bloc and Sino-Albanian trade relations.

  • October 14, 1961

    Memorandum of Conversation from the Meeting between Vice Premier Chen Yi and the Albanian Ambassador to China Reis Malile

    Chen Yi and Reis Malile discuss Sino-Albanian trade and Syria's secession from the United Arab Republic.

  • October 17, 1961

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Poland, 'Polish Celebration of Our National Day, the Polish Communist Party’s Attitude toward China, and Our Views'

    The Chinese Embassy in Poland concludes that "Poland consciously wishes to improve Chinese-Polish relations."

  • November 27, 1961

    Cable from the Foreign Ministry, 'Notice regarding the Appropriate Response to the Czechoslovak Premier’s Attack on Our Party'

    The Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs weighs how to respond to Czechoslovak criticisms of Mao Zedong's cult of personality following the 20th Congress of the CPSU.