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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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China-Europe Relations

Europe and China were undoubtedly the most important third actors in the Cold War system. As territorial entities and political and economic actors located at the crossroads of the mutual spheres of action of the two superpowers, they played a key role in the evolution and reshaping of the bipolar system. This collection charts China's relations with Europe, and as it moved from East to West throughout the course of the Cold War.

  • March 05, 1964

    Note number 150, 'Visit of M. Ho Ying'

    Henri de Bourdeille reports on his meeting with the Chinese Ambassador following the establishment of relations between France and China.

  • April 01, 1964

    Record of Conversation between Former Ambassador to Poland Wang Bingnan and Władysław Gomułka

    Wang Bingnan and Władysław Gomułka discuss the Sino-Soviet split.

  • October 16, 1964

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Albania to the CCPCC International Liaison Department and Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Albania’s Reactions to Khrushchev’s Removal'

    The Chinese Embassy conveys Mehmet Shehu's comments on the removal of Khrushchev.

  • October 18, 1964

    Cable to the CCPCC International Liaison Department and Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Reactions of Albanian Newspapers to Our Nuclear Bomb Test and Khrushchev’s Removal'

    The Chinese Embassy in Tirana notes Albania's positive responses to China's successful nuclear test.

  • November 07, 1964

    Record of Conversation between Polish leader Wladyslaw Gomułka and Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai, Moscow

    Zhou Enlai and Gomulka discuss the growing split between China and the Soviet Union.

  • November 09, 1964

    Record of Conversation between Polish leader Wladyslaw Gomułka and Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai, Moscow

    Zhou Enlai and Gomulka discuss the Sino-Soviet split following Khrushchev's removal as well as Poland's involvement in maintaining peace in Vietnam.

  • December 03, 1964

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Czechoslovakia to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Our Contacts with Middle- and Lower-Level Personnel'

    The Chinese Embassy in Czechoslovakia reports that "people were willing to talk with us and listen to our opinions" since Khrushchev's fall from power.

  • December 16, 1964

    Telegram number 1508-10 from Claude Chayet

    Claude Chayet summarizes the responses at the United Nations to China's proposal for a conference on nuclear disarmament.

  • March 15, 1965

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Bulgaria, 'Bulgaria’s New Direction after the Meeting in March'

    The Chinese Embassy in Bulgaria reports that Bulgaria is following the "anti-Chinese" line of the Soviet Union.

  • May 15, 1965

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Bulgaria, 'Reflections on China’s Second Nuclear Test'

    The Chinese Embassy in Bulgaria reports how representatives from throughout the socialist bloc in Bulgaria responded to China's second nuclear test.

  • July 26, 1965

    Stenographic Transcript of Discussions Held with Chinese Communist Party Delegation to the 9th Congress of Romanian Communist Party

    The meeting focuses on disagreements between the Chinese and Soviets regarding the Vietnam War and general support to the North Vietnamese. The two sides also discuss general relations among the Warsaw Pact countries.

  • September 30, 1965

    Cable from Wang Guoquan to Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ministry of Transportation, 'Renke Talked about Issues in the International Communist Movement and the Sino-Polish Relations'

    China's relations with Poland are reviewed within the context of Soviet-Polish relations.

  • June, 1966

    Memorandum of Conversation, between the Delegation of the People’s Republic of China, Led by Comrade Zhou Enlai, and the Leadership of the Party and Government of the People’s Republic of Albania [Excerpts]

    Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai meets with a delegation from Albania, and discusses with them Mao Zedong's 'Ten Theses on the Work in the Village.' The Albanians reaffirm their belief in the philosophical teachings of Mao, especially about opposing the dangers of revisionism. The group agrees that there were points at which Stalin was wrong, but that it would be wrong to publicly proclaim it.

  • November 16, 1966

    Telegram number 3725-59 from M. Lucien Paye

    Lucien Paye, upon departing China, meets with Foreign Minister Chen Yi to discuss the Red Guard movement, Sino-French relations, and the Vietnam War, among other topics.

  • February 03, 1967

    Memorandum of Conversation between Chairman Mao Zedong and Comrades Hysni Kapo and Beqir Balluku

    Mao Zedong and Beqir Balluku discuss China's Cultural Revolution.

  • July 08, 1967

    Memorandum of Conversation between comrade Enver Hoxha and a Delegation of Chinese Red Guards

    Enver Hoxha announces that China's Red Guards have "risen to defend the Communist Party, Chairman Mao Zedong, and socialist China."

  • August 16, 1967

    Stenographic Note held during the Conversation between Chairman Mao Zedong and Vangjel Moisiu and Myfit Mushi in Shanghai

    Mao Zedong discusses the Cultural Revolution with a delegation from Albania.

  • January 18, 1968

    Note Number 48 from Louis de Guiringaud to His Excellency M. Couve de Murville, 'Relations between Communist Countries'

    Describing problems amongst communist countries, the Polish Ambassador to Japan reports that "Mao Zedong considered himself as the heir of the Chinese Emperors and treated the Ambassadors as such." The Ambassador also describes kidnappings carried out by the North Korean government.

  • September 03, 1968

    Note Number 291 from the Department of Asia-Oceania, 'China and the Events in Czechoslovakia'

    The Department of Asia-Oceania analyzes shifts in Chinese foreign policy toward Eastern Europe following the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 and connects the apparent changes in Beijing's diplomacy to the Sino-Soviet split and the Vietnam War.

  • November 20, 1968

    Telegram Number 2206/09, 'NATO Ministerial Council'

    French diplomat Lucien Paye assesses Chinese foreign policy in the aftermath of the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia and speculates that China wishes to exploit differences within the NATO camp.