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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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Sino-American Cooperation, 1972-1989

Following Nixon's visit to China in 1972 and until the tumultuous events of 1989, China and the United States engaged in a dialogue on, and cooperated in resolving, a range of global issues and problems. (Image: Deng Xiaoping and Jimmy Carter in Washington, DC, January 1979. National Archives.)

  • December 12, 1970

    Memorandum of Conversation between Romanian Deputy Premier Gheorghe Radulescu and Zhou Enlai during a Visit to China between 20-26 November 1970

    Gheorge Radulescu informs Zhou Enlai that the United States desires to improve Sino-US relations and discuss China's representation in the UN. Zhou states that China does not accept the proposal for Taiwan to remain a member of the UN as an autonomous region of China, because, in that case, other countries could ask that the same be done for Tibet and Xinjiang. Zhou notes the ongoing border disputes with the Soviet Union. Zhou also discusses Japan's growing economy and the threat of renewed Japanese militarism.

  • June 03, 1971

    Minutes of Conversation between Nicolae Ceausescu and Mao Zedong in Beijing on 3 June 1971

    Mao Zedong and Nicolae Ceausescu discuss China's international reputation as a dogmatic dictatorship, especially among other Communist countries. They also discuss ping pong and scientific progress, specifically nuclear weapons and space exploration.

  • June 22, 1971

    Report by the Third Secretary of the Bulgarian Embassy in Pyongyang, Zahary Ianakiev, to Bulgarian Ambassador Yancho Georgiev Concerning Ceauşescu's Visit to China

    Ianakiev gives an account of Ceauşescu's visit to China, mentioning China's agreement to lend Romania US$230 million and reporting that Ceauşescu's visit to Vietnam is to be postponed.

  • August 04, 1971

    Minutes of the Joint Meeting of the Central Committee and the Ministers’ Council

    These notes discuss foreign policy issues related to China, Hungary, the Soviet Union, and Romania. To quote the document itself, it "was a bilateral discussion of the internal situation of fraternal Parties and countries, and later an exchange of opinion on contemporary foreign policy questions and the problems of the international workers’ movement."

  • August 06, 1971

    Letter of Enver Hoxha, Central Committee of the Party of Labor of Albania, to Mao Zedong, Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party

    In a letter to Chairman Mao and the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, Enver Hoxha wrote, on behalf of the Labor Party of Albandia, about Albania's position regarding President Nixon's upcoming visit to China. Albania did not approve nor support this visit due to American imperialism and U.S. protests against Marxism-Lenninism.

  • October 09, 1971

    Stenographic Transcript of the Meeting of the Executive Committee of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party (Nixon's Visit to China)

    This stenographic transcript of a meeting of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party records a discussion among high-level party members with regard to US President's Nixon visits to Moscow and China in 1971 and the possible impact of these visits on Romania and the rest of the Warsaw Pact member states.

  • February 07, 1972

    Lecture by Soviet Ambassador Tolstikov for Friendly Diplomats on Forthcoming Nixon Visit

    In his presentation to the chiefs of the Warsaw Pact states' diplomatic representations in February 1972, Soviet Ambassador Tolstikov analyzes Chinese-US relations over the previous 25 years and assesses the political and economic prospects for a Sino-American rapprochement in the light of US President Richard Nixon's imminent visit to Beijing.

  • March 21, 1972

    Memorandum of Conversation between Chairman Mao Zedong and President Richard Nixon

    Mao Zedong and Richard Nixon focus on "philosophic problems" in relations between China and the United States during their first meeting.

  • March 22, 1972

    Memorandum of Conversation between Richard Nixon and Zhou Enlai

  • February 27, 1972

    Joint Communique between the United States and China

    The United States and China pledge to improve relations with one another in the famous "Shanghai Communique."

  • March 15, 1972

    Record of a Conversation between Czechoslovak Ambassador and Rakhmanin in Moscow on Nixon's Visit to China

    This conversation record outlines the results of US President Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to China, and notes the determination of the Soviet Union to impede rapprochement between the US and China. In the second part, the Soviet Central Committee member P.B. Rakhmanin examines the strategic implications of the visit for the US spheres of influence in Europe and Asia.

  • July, 1972

    Information from Consultative Meeting about China July 3-5, 1972 on International Policy and Internal Situation of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) under Current Conditions

    A lengthy document that addresses several issues related to Communism and China. It covers such topics as Chinese foreign policy, Chinese and American relations, Maoism, Chinese policy regarding developing countries, capitalist countries and other socialist countries.

  • December 15, 1972

    Secret Telegram from Moscow to Warsaw, No. 13698

    This gives a short overview of Chinese foreign policy in light of Communist and Soviet attitudes and perceptions in China. A possible Soviet response to such attitudes is suggested.

  • February 28, 1973

    Note on the Meeting with Comrade O.B. Rakhmanin, Deputy Head of International Department of CC

    This document notes changes in Chinese policy that has led to difficult relations with the Soviets, and problems caused by comments made by Mao Zedong. It also discusses other aspects of Chinese foreign policy, such as their attitude and actions towards the U.S. and Japan.

  • October 12, 1973

    Verbatim Transcript of the Third Meeting between Prime Minister Trudeau and Premier Zhou Enlai

    Zhou Enlai and Trudeau have a wideranging conversation on international politics, covering the Vietnam War, Sino-Japanese relations, Nixon's visit to China, the Arab-Israeli conflict, the Arctic circle, and nuclear energy safeguards, among other topics.

  • November 12, 1973

    Memorandum of Conversation between Mao Zedong and Henry Kissinger

    Secretary of State Henry Kissinger met with Chairman Mao and Zhou Enlai. The three discussed a large range of topics from Sino-Soviet relations to the Middle East to the influence of Chinese communism.

  • June, 1975

    China after the 10th Party Congress and the Adoption of the Maoist Constitution

    This study analyzes China's domestic and foreign policies after the 10th Congress of the Chinese Communist Party. It addresses the propaganda measures of the Maoist regime and the socio-economic development in China. The report also discusses the undemocratic character of the Chinese Constitution of 1975. Regarding its foreign relations, China is said to be extending its area of influence in developing countries and developing closer relations with Western countries. Chinese-US relations are criticized, as well as China's permissiveness in allowing more Western influences to affect its domestic policies and economic strategies.

  • September 06, 1975

    Note regarding the Meeting between Ilie Verdeț and Ji Denggui

    Ji Denggui and Ilie Verdeț discuss bilateral relations between China and Romania, nuclear proliferation and diarmament, Soviet-American relations, Comecon, European security, US policy toward Taiwan, Japan-Soviet relations, and economic development in China and Romania, among other topics.

  • October 21, 1975

    Memorandum of Conversation between Mao Zedong and Henry A. Kissinger

    U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger met Chairman Mao at his residence in Peking. The two argued about the importance of U.S.-Chinese relations in American politics. Mao repeats that the United States' concerns order America, the Soviet Union, Europe, Japan, and lastly China. Kissinger responds that the Soviet Union, as a superpower, is frequently dealt with, but in strategy China is a priority. Throughout the conversation, Mao continues to point out his old age and failing health. The leaders also discuss European unity, Japanese hegemony, German reunification, and the New York Times.

  • December 02, 1975

    Memorandum of Conversation between Mao Zedong and Gerald R. Ford

    President Ford and Secretary Kissinger met with Chairman Mao and spoke about Chinese-U.S. relations, Japanese-U.S. relations, Chinese foreign relations with Japan and Western countries, NATO, the Sinai Agreement, and Soviet attempts to expand influence in Africa.