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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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China and South Asia

South Asia was one of the most important regions in China's international relations and foreign policy. Drawn largely from the Chinese Foreign Ministry Archives, this collection sheds light on China's relations with India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan in particular. In the absence of similar sources from South Asia, these documents, moreover, are also invaluable to the study of South Asia in context of the Cold War. (Photo: The Prime Minister of Pakistan, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, meets Mao Zedong (right) in October 1956.) (See also: Sino-Indian Border War, 1962.)

  • November 24, 1950

    Cable from the Chinese Foreign Ministry, 'Report on Negotiations regarding the Tibet issue between China and India'

    The Chinese Foreign Ministry reports on the Sino-Indian Negotiation over Tibet, and claims that India intends to interfere in the PRC's internal affairs.

  • May 24, 1951

    Memorandum of Conversation, Soviet Ambassador to China N.V. Roshchin with Indian Ambassador K.M. Panikkar, 3 May 1951

    On 3 May Roshchin was at a reception of the Indian ambassador Panikkar. At the reception many different representatives were present. During the reception Panikkar expressed his great frustration over his difficult situation regarding the export of grain from China, and informed that in the current situation in India there is no way to produce the quantity of grain that they could receive from China. There was given special attention to the Czechoslovak representatives and trade delegation.

  • November 27, 1951

    Meeting Minutes between Chinese Vice Foreign Minister Zhang Hanfu and Indian Commisioner T.N. Kaul

    Zhang Hanfu and Kaul discuss the grain trade between China and India, the situation at the border following the PRC's incorporation of Tibet, and the arrangements for Zhang Hanfu to attend the International Industrial Expo in Bombay

  • December 31, 1951

    Letter to Lt. Col Mohammed Sadiq

    The Embassy of Pakistan writes to Lt. Col. Sadiq, Consul General in Xinjiang, on advertising among Pakistani nationals in Xinjiang.

  • March 12, 1952

    Letter from the Embassy of Pakistan to the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs (No.691-F.121/52)

    The Embassy of Pakistan in China requests the assistance of Chinese authorities in contacting Pakistani nationals in Xinjiang.

  • March 28, 1952

    Letter from the Embassy of Pakistan to the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs (No.854-F.121/51.)

    The Embassy of Pakistan in China acknowledges receipt of a list of Pakistani nationals in Xinjiang.

  • June 23, 1952

    Meeting Minutes between Chinese Vice Foreign Minister Zhou Enlai and Indian Commissioner T.N. Kaul

    Zhang Hanfu and Kaul discuss the Tibet issue as well as prisoners of war from the Korean War.

  • June 23, 1952

    Summary of Conversation between Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai and Indian Commissioner T.N. Kaul

    Zhang Hanfu and K.M. Panikkar discuss the status of Tibet between China and India.

  • September 27, 1952

    Letter from the Embassy of Pakistan to the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs (No. 4564-F-198/52.)

    The Embassy of Pakistan in Beijing requests information on the deaths of two Pakistani nationals in a Xinjiang prison.

  • March 06, 1953

    Letter from the Embassy of Pakistan to the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs (No. 504-F-103/53)

    The Pakistani Embassy in Beijing asks that the local government in Xinjiang provide financial assistance to allow a Pakistani national to return to Pakistan.

  • March 06, 1953

    Letter from the Embassy of Pakistan to the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs (No. 598-F-198/53)

    The Embassy of Pakistan in China requests support and financial assistance to allow several Pakistani nationals to leave Xinjiang.

  • September 06, 1953

    Cable from Ambassador Yuan Zhongxin, 'Minutes of Meeting between R.K. Nehru and Ambassador Yuan'

    The Chinese ambassador to India reports that he and Nehru discussed Indian privileges in Tibet, the use of radios and guns by Indian commercial representatives in Tibet, and the issue of garrison relief.

  • October 03, 1953

    Aide Memoire from the Government of India, Ministry of External Affairs

    India agrees in principle to withdraw their Military Escorts in Tibet and proposed conversation between the two governments at the earliest opportunity

  • October 21, 1953

    Cable from Zhang Jingwu, 'On Issues of Relations between China and India in Tibet'

    Zhang Jingwu reports on the Simla Accord and the McMahon line running between India and Tibet, and offers policy recommendations.

  • April 29, 1954

    Agreement between the Republic of India and the People's Republic of China on Trade and Intercourse between the Tibet Region of China and India

    China and India put forth the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, which call for mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty, mutual non-aggression, mutual non-interference in each other's internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful co-existence.

  • May 03, 1954

    Memorandum of Conversation between Deputy Foreign Minister Zhang Hanfu and Indian Ambassador to China Raghavan Concerning Premier Nehru’s Statement on the Hydrogen Bomb

    Zhang Hanfu and Raghavan discuss the hydrogen bomb and the Colombo Conference.

  • June 22, 1954

    Cable from the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, 'Intention and Plans for Visiting India'

    The Central Committee approves Zhou Enlai's travel to India.

  • June 22, 1954

    Cable from Zhou Enlai, 'Premier’s Intentions and Plans to Visit India'

    Zhou Enlai informed the Chinese government that his purposes of visiting India were to prepare the signing of an Asian peace and to build peace in the Indochina area. He also stated his plans regarding the negotiations of several treaties. The Chinese government agreed with his plans.

  • July 10, 1954

    Cable from the Chinese Foreign Ministry, 'Zhou Enlai's Conversations with the Ambassadors of India, Indonesia, and Burma'

    Telegram from the Foreign Ministry to Chinese ambassadors to India, Indonesia, Burma, and Pakistan briefing on the conversations between Zhou Enlai and the ambassadors of India, Indonesia, and Burma.

  • October 07, 1954

    Memorandum of Conversation from the Meeting between Premier Zhou Enlai and the Pakistan Women’s Delegation (Excerpts)

    A conversation between Zhou Enlai and a Pakistani women's delegation on Sino-Indian-Pakistani trilateral relations, the Kashmir issue, and China's qualms about Pakistani membership in the Southeast Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO).