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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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China and the Soviet Union in Xinjiang, 1934-1949

This collection of Soviet records documents the political and military turmoil in Xinjiang in the 1930s and 1940s. The records provide considerable details on the insurrection led by Ma Zhongying, Governor Sheng Shicai's relationship with Stalin, the establishment of the East Turkestan Republic (1944-1949) in northern Xinjiang, and Sino-Soviet relations in Xinjiang, among other topics. (Photo: Governor of Xinjiang Sheng Shicai, date unknown.)

  • September 10, 1947

    Telegram from Cde. Fedotov to Cde. V.M. Molotov

    Cde. Fedotov suggests that General-Major Vladimir Stepanovich Yegnarov be dispatched to Xinjiang to led support to the rebels associated with the East Turkestan Republic (ETR).

  • September 10, 1947

    Proposals of the Economic Research Committee of the USSR Council of Ministers in connection with the Situation in Xinjiang

    The Soviet Council of Ministers offers four proposals to support the rebels in the East Turkestan Republic (ETR) and prevent the Chinese Guomindang from reclaiming territory in northern Xinjiang.

  • 1948

    Appeal to the Peoples of Xinjiang

    The Association for the Defense of Peace and Democracy in Xinjiang issues a twelve point list of demands for political and social change.

  • April 24, 1948

    Excerpt on Xinjiang from Minutes No. 63 of the VKP(b) CC Politburo Meetings

    The Central Committee of the CPSU announces measures to increase Soviet support of the East Turkestan Republic (ETR), a rebellion in northern Xinjiang.

  • February 01, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Zhou Enlai

    Anastas and Zhou Enlai discuss Muslims in China, Chinese policy in inner Mongolia, the Guomindang navy, Guomindang forces, characteristics of Guomindang leaders, PLA arms, PLA military requests, PLA intelligence, and the organization of the war ministry. (Evening)

  • February 04, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong discuss the independence of Mongolia, the independence movement in Xinjiang, the construction of a railroad in Xinjiang, CCP contacts with the VKP(b), the candidate for Chinese ambassador to the USSR, aid from the USSR to China, CCP negotiations with the Guomindang, the preparatory commisssion for convening the PCM, the character of future rule in China, Chinese treaties with foreign powers, and the Sino-Soviet treaty.

  • February 06, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong discuss Outer Mongolia, the Sino-Soviet treaty, the situation of the national minorities in China, the economic policy of the CCP, the structure of state power, the head of the Chinese government, the "new situation" and the cadres, the Soviet loan to China, the CCP CC plans for February-March, and the youth movement.