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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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Sino-Japanese Normalization, 1972

A collection exploring the normalization of diplomatic relations between the People's Republic of China and Japan in 1972. The collection includes records of the high-level talks among Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Takeiri Yoshikatsu, Tanaka Kakuei, and other Chinese and Japanese leaders which made normalization happen.

  • July 27, 1972

    Record of the First Meeting between Takeiri Yoshikatsu and Zhou Enlai

    Zhou Enlai met with Takeiri Yoshikatsu and he mentioned the international status of Taiwan while claiming that "the realization of relations between Japan and China is the desire of all citizens."

  • July 28, 1972

    Record of the Second Meeting between Takeiri Yoshikatsu and Zhou Enlai

    During a conversation with Takeiri, Zhou Enlai questioned the news from Tokyo Shimbun which emphasized that the state of war between Japan and China had ended. In addition, he mentioned the international status of Taiwan and the Vietnam War.

  • July 29, 1972

    Zhou Enlai's Remarks about the Lin Biao Issue

    Zhou Enlai made statements on the Lin Biao Issue and responses of foreign representatives from the United States, Japan and the Soviet Union. In addition, he delves into modern Chinese History after the Anti-Japanese War.

  • July 29, 1972

    Record of the Third Meeting between Takeiri Yoshikatsu and Zhou Enlai

    During a conversation with Takeiri, Zhou Enlai reviewed the main points of their opinions from the first and second rounds of dialogue.

  • September, 1972

    Tacit Agreement between the Government of the People’s Republic of China and the Government of Japan

    Ohira Masayoshi met with Ji Pengfei and agreed upon tacit agreement which starts with "Taiwan is the territory of the People's Republic of China."

  • September, 1972

    Outline Proposal for the Japan-China Joint Declaration

    Ohira Masayoshi, the Japanese Foreign Minister, and Ji Pengfei, the Chinese Foreign Minister, met together and agreed upon outline proposal for the Japan-China Joint Declaration.

  • September, 1972

    Joint Declaration between the Government of the People’s Republic of China and the Government of Japan

    Ohira Masayosh and Ji Penfei agreed on the joint declaration between the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Government of Japan.

  • September, 1972

    Joint Declaration between the Government of the People’s Republic of China and the Government of Japan (Draft)

    The Chinese government and the Japanese government agreed upon a draft of joint declaration, including a state of war between Chian and Japan and an international status of Taiwan.

  • September, 1972

    Explanation for China regarding the Japanese Delegation’s Proposal for the Japan-China Joint Declaration

    Treaties Bureau Chief Takashima explained the Japanese delegation's proposal which includes the issue of the end to the state of war and Taiwan to China.

  • September 25, 1972

    Record of the First Meeting between Prime Minister Tanaka and Premier Zhou Enlai

    Tanaka Kakuei and Zhou Enlai had a conversation over the reasons for delay in diplomatic normalization, including the Japan-Taiwan relationship and the Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty.

  • September 26, 1972

    Record of First Meeting between Foreign Minister Ohira and Foreign Minister Ji Pengfei

    During a conversation, Ji Pengfei, the Chinese Foreign Minister, handed the draft which mentioned the status of war to Ohira Masayoshi, the Japanese Foreign Minister.

  • September 26, 1972

    Record of Second Meeting between Foreign Minister Ohira and Foreign Minister Ji Pengfei

    Ohira Masayoushi and Ji Pengfei had a conversation over the main body of the joint declaration, especially for the Three Principles in the preamble.

  • September 26, 1972

    Record of the Second Meeting between Prime Minister Tanaka and Premier Zhou Enlai

    Zhou Enlai and Tanaka Kakuei discussed the Taiwan issue, especially for Japan-Taiwan relations after Japan-China diplomatic normalization. Zhou mentioned that he wants to start "establishing a new relationship between Japan and China."

  • September 27, 1972

    Mao Zedong, 'Settlement of the Questions of Restoration of Diplomatic Relations between China and Japan Still Depends on the Government of the Liberal Democratic Party'

    Mao met with Tanaka Kakuei, the Prime Minister of Japan, and he argued that settlement of the question of restoration of diplomatic relations between China and Japan still depends on the government of the Liberal Democratic Party.

  • September 27, 1972

    Informal Talks between Foreign Minister Ohira and Foreign Minister Ji Pengfei

    Ohira Masayoshi and Ji Pengfei had a conversation about the joint declaration, especially for the end of war, expressions and the timing for the announcement.

  • September 27, 1972

    Excerpt of Mao Zedong’s Conversation with Japanese Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka

    Mao claims that, as a result of Tanaka's visit to China, "the whole world is trembling in fear." In addition to discussing international politics, Mao and Tanaka also delve into ancient Chinese history and Buddhist philosophy.

  • September 27, 1972

    Record of the Third Meeting between Prime Minister Tanaka and Premier Zhou Enlai

    Zhou Enlai met with Tanaka Kakuei and discussed foreign affairs, including the Korean War, the Sino-Soviet Treaty and Indochina issues after the Vietnam War. Zhou claimed that "the liberation of Taiwan is a domestic issue."

  • September 27, 1972

    Record of Third Meeting between Foreign Minister Ohira and Foreign Minister Ji Pengfei

    Ji Pengfei, the Chinese Foreign Minister, explained the Chinese delegation's thoughts regarding the title and expression used in the joint declaration.

  • September 28, 1972

    Telegram 10353 from the American Embassy in Tokyo, 'Mao-Tanaka Meeting'

    Mao had a conversation with Tanaka, carrying numerous stories from food to his childhood.

  • September 28, 1972

    Record of the Fourth Meeting between Prime Minister Tanaka and Premier Zhou Enlai

    Zhou Enlai met with Tanaka Kakuei, the Japanese Prime Minister and shared opinions regarding the diplomatic normalization. Zhou claimed that "it is unlikely for us to liberate Taiwan by force."