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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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Intelligence Operations in the Cold War

This is a collection of primary source documents that discuss intelligence issues during the Cold War. The documents come from archives in many different Soviet bloc countries. They are mainly decision memorandums, descriptions, agreements, and reports. The collection includes mainly bilateral agreements for cooperation between Communist countries and domestic intelligence reports from Bulgaria. See also the Mitrokhin Archive and the Vassiliev Notebooks. (Image, KGB symbol)

  • July 14, 1972

    Record of discussion and text of coordination plan on operative technology from the summer of 1972 through 1974, reached by the Committee of State Security (KGB) of the USSR and the Czechoslovak Ministry of the Interior

    The KGB and head representative of operative technical services for the Czechoslovak Ministry of the Interior agreed to a plan to continue the exchange of scientific-technical information and samples of operative technology and to convene meetings of specialists on these topics. The text of the coordination plan of summer 1972 - 1974 follows, and categories governed by it include technical documents, photographs, criminology, confidential documents, radio electronics and photo optics.

  • September 20, 1972

    Bulgarian Politburo decision on Intelligence Activity Against China

    BCP CC Politburo approves the request of the Minister of Internal Affairs, Angel Tzanev, for an increase in the intelligence staff in response to the need for expanding intelligence operations in China, Albania, Romania, Yugoslavia and Vietnam – a move closely coordinated with the KGB.

  • February 19, 1973

    Information from Bulgaria on the Dismissal of Charges Against Army Officers for Anti-Party and Anti-State Activity

    Information regarding the reaction of a group of 16 Bulgarian Armed Forces officers, discharged for “anti-party and anti-state activity”. Some of them were rehabilitated with a CC BCP Secretariat Resolution “B-9” on October 13, 1972. The BCP CC’s Military Department recommends that the State Security Committee’s Sixth Directorate continue monitoring the group. KDS should also brief regularly the BCP CC about the behavior of those former officers who have not yet been rehabilitated. While those with favorable disposition towards the Party line should be recommended for future rehabilitation, others who are still standing on “anti-party” positions must be warned in the course.

  • April 04, 1973

    Protocol on exchanges of workers and publications between the interior ministries of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1973

    This agreement provides for workers from the governments of the CSSR and USSR to spend short amounts of time in the other's country for research purposes and to work with organizations in that country. It also outlines the exchange of various publications related to state security and criminology, giving their exact titles and the number of copies to be exchanged.

  • December 06, 1973

    Agreement on Cooperation between the Stasi and the KGB, 6 December 1973

    1973 agreement between the Stasi and the KGB outlining their cooperative efforts to fight "ideological subversion" and uncover "the hostile plans of the enemy." Both secret services would also exchange information gathered by their espionage activities and provide mutual support in infiltrating agents. Of particular mutual interest was espionage against the Federal Republic of Germany and West Berlin. To this end, the KGB was permitted to recruit East German citizens, and the MfS would secure their ongoing contacts.

  • February 11, 1974

    Protocol on exchange of employees and information in the scientific, technical and security fields for the year 1974

    This protocol arranges for short visits between Czechoslovak and Soviet Interior Ministry experts, functionaries and scientists to visit the other's country in order obtain information on topics including physical and chemical research methods, infrared, spectrophotometry and chromatography technology and the use of science and technology in the military. Both parties agree to mutual consultations on questions relating to public security, the military and the shared border of the CSSR and USSR. Publications on security and criminology are listed by title and the number of copies to be exchanged is enumerated.

  • March 01, 1974

    Bulgarian Military Intelligence Report on Turkish Military Operation in Cyprus

    The Ministry of Defense has received information for Turkish plans for invasion of Greece in an event of escalation of the conflict in Cyprus.

  • May 31, 1974

    Agreement between the Czechoslovak Ministry of the Interior and Soviet Committee of State Security (KGB) to inform each other on internal security situations

    Delegates from the Czechoslovak Ministry of the Interior and the Soviet KGB agreed to inform each other on the work of their state security forces, implement steps to frustrate hostile acts in both countries and work mutually on questions of intelligence and counter-intelligence. The KGB agrees to provide aid to the Czechoslovak Ministry of the Interior in preparing cadres and receive Czechoslovak workers for study in its established schools.

  • July 23, 1974

    Bulgarian Military Intelligence Report on Greco-Turkish Battles in Cyprus

    Report on the hostilities between the two countries during the 1974 Cypress Crisis.

  • November 05, 1974

    Border security agreement between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union and rules simplifying crossing of the Czechoslovak-Soviet border for citizens of the two countries

    This protocol between the border security forces of Czechoslovakia and the USSR is aimed at facilitating the exchange of bilateral information between the two forces (per the agreement of March, 1961), discussing the findings of both security organizations from May 1972 to October 1974 and coordinating a new border security agreement. This document also includes data on telephone connections in the border regions. The two delegations agreed upon rules concerning the simplified border passage of Czechoslovak and Soviet citizens.

  • December 19, 1974

    Plan regarding coordination between the Czechoslovak Ministry of the Interior and the Soviet KGB for the years 1975 -1977

    This plan broadly outlines coordination between the security organs of the CSSR and SSSR for the years 1975, 1976 and 1977. The two parties pledge to implement joint operations to detect and prevent hostile activities and protect bilateral and unilateral state secrets. Protocol on short-term entrance and exit to both territories is discussed, as is the exchange of operational information on hostile activities of foreign governments; scientific-technical and trade exchanges are also part of this agreement. Rules governing international flights, rail commerce and shipping lines are contained in the last section of this plan.

  • January 22, 1975

    Protocol on steps to increase coordination between the Czechoslovak Ministry of the Interior and the Soviet Ministry of the Interior in 1975

    This agreement provides for short visits by employees of the Czechoslovak and Soviet Interior Ministries in the other country in order to share knowledge in the areas of criminology, security, scientific experimentation and academia. The two parties agree to semiannual exchanges on the most major security and criminal issues faced in each country. Dates for conferences are set and the number and titles of publications for exchange are listed. These publications concern security matters, criminology, military information and crime statistics.

  • March 07, 1975

    Plan on joint counter-intelligence measures between the KGB and Czechoslovak Ministry of the Interior from summer 1975 until 1977

    This agreement outlines cooperation on security issues concerning hostile ideological centers, emigrant groups and anti-socialist, anti-Soviet, revisionist and nationalist groups. Also discussed in detail are ecclesiastical organizations, the alteration of informational and occupational gatherings between the two countries and scientific, cultural and students exchanges.

  • September 30, 1975

    Czechoslovak Interior Ministry Note on Actions of Agent Minarik against Radio Free Europe

    Pavel Minarik worked at RFE from 1968 to 1976 as an agent of the Czechoslovak Intelligence Service. During these years he provided many documents and analyses to the Service. This document contains Interior Minister Obzina’s approval of an Intelligence Service plan to recall and publicize Minarik’s activities. Minarik was recalled to Prague and surfaced at a staged press conference in 1976.

  • December 11, 1975

    Cooperative plan between the Czechoslovak Ministry of the Interior and the Soviet KGB from the summer of 1976 to 1980

    This cooperation agreement seeks to use Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation as a means to achieve the following objectives: (1) subverting attempts by hostile factions to infiltrate both countries' national and joint staff and military bodies having access to classified military information; (2) detection and obstruction of attempts by state enemies to carry out subversive acts against national and joint armed forces; (3) perfection of counter-intelligence security actions by the Warsaw Treaty united command; and (4) prevention and timely detection of possible leaks of classified information.

  • January 23, 1976

    Protocol on cooperation between the Interior Ministries of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Soviet Union in 1976

    This agreement provides for short visits of employees of the Czechoslovak and Soviet Interior Ministries to the other country in order to study and exchange information on a variety of topics, including informational systems, mechanized and automated systems of computational technology and criminology. Details on recreational visits for employees of the two Ministries and conference dates are also given. An exchange of publications is finalized, with the works listed by title and number of copies; these documents relate to security, criminology and statistics.

  • June 04, 1976

    Agreement between the Czechoslovak and Soviet Ministries of the Interior on cooperation from the summer of 1976 until 1980

    This plan focuses on developing and strengthening bilateral ties between the two countries in the areas of science, technology, security operations and criminology. It also calls for the sharing of best practices of propaganda methods, roadway security and oversight, education of government officials and administrative organization of bureaus such as the Ministry of the Interior. Provisions are made to exchange methods designed to improve the systems of permit, passport and visa issuance and registration of aliens. The sharing of best practices to reduce alcohol abuse, vagrancy, recidivism and youth crime is discussed as well.

  • August 30, 1976

    Cooperative agreement between the Interior Ministry of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Soviet Union KGB

    The Czechoslovak and Soviet security branches agreed to cooperate in the acquisition of documents and the sharing of information on hostile persons. The two parties committed to favorable relations within international organizations and joint counter-intelligence measures, articulating a focus on improving intelligence and counter-intelligence on the U.S. and its allies and China. Both parties vow to assist each other in illegal intelligence work and in the counter-intelligence monitoring of persons working for embassies, international firms or otherwise engaged in economic relations. The Czechoslovaks and Soviets agree to coordinate actions before providing assistance to security programs in developing countries, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the Vietnamese Socialist Republic.

  • December 01, 1977

    Agreement between the Soviet KGB and Czechoslovak Ministry of the Interior from the summer of 1978 to 1980

    In order to combat the perceived threat of hostile, foreign special agents operating on Soviet and Czechoslovak territory, the two parties agree to centralize their efforts to ensure the security of the two countries. In order to counter the special agents of capitalist countries and preserve the security of state secrets, the two parties decide to exchange counter-intelligence activity on subversive activity in Czechoslovakia, the Soviet Union and other socialist states. The two parties agree to focus on citizens of capitalist countries such as the United States, England, France and other NATO member nations and citizens of the People's Republic of China and the German Democratic Republic in their intelligence efforts. Specifically, the parties agree to monitor citizens of these countries working in Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union and people working for representative agencies of the aforementioned countries. Also being monitored are Czechoslovak and Soviet citizens returning from capitalist or developing countries, corresponding with people in capitalist countries and having an address in a capitalist country. In conclusion, the KGB and Czechoslovak Interior Ministry agree to regular, bilateral exchange of information on hostile residents of both countries who are thought to be in the employ of the special intelligence services of NATO countries and China.

  • December 05, 1977

    Cooperation agreement between the state security schools of the Soviet Union and Czechoslovak Socialist Republic

    The two schools agree to bilateral consultations regarding training content and internships for cadets and to share teaching materials, teachers, recorded lectures and film. Both educational institutions pledge to work together to determine a common plan for each school year. This agreement also mentions the Soviet Red Banner distinction.