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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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German Reunification

In 1990, following the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the Socialist Unity Party (SED), East and West Germany reunited as the enlarged Federal Republic of Germany.

  • September 23, 1989

    Record of Conversation Between Mikhail Gorbachev and Prime Minister of Great Britain Margaret Thatcher

    Gorbachev and Thatcher discuss reforms in the Soviet Union and issues with inter-ethnic tensions. Thatcher states that she is not in support of German unification.

  • October 23, 1989

    Bush-Kohl Telephone Conversation on the Situation in Eastern Europe

    Telephone conversation between President George H. W. Bush and German Chancellor Helmut Kohl on the situation in Eastern Europe.

  • October 31, 1989

    Information Note from Romanian Embassy in Berlin to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    Note from Romanian Embassy in Berlin to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding peaceful street protests in the GDR, the opnening of dialogue between government and citizens, and the serious effort to enact reforms, including a cessation of criticizing West Germany in the media

  • November 01, 1989

    Soviet Record of Conversation between M. S. Gorbachev and the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED), Egon Krenz

    Soviet record of conversation between M. S. Gorbachev and the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED), Egon Krenz concerning the possible reunification of Germany and issues faced by both the Soviet Union and the GDR

  • November 06, 1989

    Conversation on GDR-FRG Economic Cooperation between Alexander Schalck and Egon Krenz

    Note of conversation between East German leader Alexander Schalck and West German Minister of the Chancellery Rudolf Seiters on future economic cooperation between the two German states. The discussion makes clear that the East German economy will collapse without immediate and massive West German aid.

  • November 09, 1989

    Conversation between Chancellor Helmut Kohl and Solidarity Leader Lech Walesa

    In this extraordinary conversation, Solidarity’s leader fears the collapse of the Wall would distract West Germany’s attention - and money - to the GDR, at the time when Poland, the trail-blazer to the post-communist era in Eastern Europe, desperately needed both. "Events are moving too fast," Walesa said, and only hours later, the Wall fell, and Kohl had to cut his Poland visit short to scramble back to Berlin, thus proving Walesa’s fear correct.

  • November 10, 1989

    Letter, General Secretary of the SED Egon Krenz to General Secretary of the CC CPSU Mikhail Gorbachev

    General Secretary Krentz reports to Gorbachev that East Germany has allowed GDR citizens to cross the border to West Berlin following mass protests at the Berlin Wall and its checkpoints. Of the 60,000 citizens who took advantage of the open border, reportedly 45,000 returned to East Germany after visiting the west.

  • November 10, 1989

    Bush-Kohl Telephone Conversation on the Situation in Germany

    Telephone conversation between President George H. W. Bush and German Chancellor Helmut Kohl on the situation in Germany.

  • November 11, 1989

    From the minutes of the joint special session of the Executive Committee of the SPD and the Steering Committee of the SPD faction

    Willy Brandt's observations on the joint special session of the Executive Committee of the SPD and the Steering Committee of the SPD faction. Brandt discusses the November 9 opening of the border between East and West Germany.

  • November 14, 1989

    Record of Telephone Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and President of France Francois Mitterand

    Telephone conversation between Gorbachev and Mitterand about France's position on German unification. Mitterand expresses that he is against changing the borders at this time.

  • November 21, 1989

    Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Prime Minister of Canada Brian Mulroney.

    Gorbachev and Mulroney discuss US interference in Eastern Europe and increasing cooperation with Western Europe. They also briefly discuss George Bush's leadership.

  • December 05, 1989

    Record of Conversation between M. S. Gorbachev and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the FRG H.D. Genscher

    Record of a conversation between M.S. Gorbachev and H.D. Genscher discussing Helmut Kohl's Ten Points. Genscher expresses interest in negotiating with FRG and passing reforms in the GDR.

  • December 06, 1989

    Rezső Nyers’s Typed Notes to Miklós Németh on Gorbachev’s Briefing on the Malta Summit on 4 December

    An official report by Nyers about the Malta Summit prepared for Prime Minister Miklós Németh.

  • December 06, 1989

    Record of Conversation between M. S. Gorbachev and President of France F. Mitterand

    Gorbachev and Mitterand discuss with concern German unification and Helmut Kohl's 10-point plan.

  • January 26, 1990

    Discussion of the German Question at a Private Meeting in the Office of the CPSU CC General Secretary

    In a conversation recorded by Chernyaev, Gorbachev candidly discusses the political situation in East and West Germany, the weakness of the Socialist Unity Party (SED), and the Soviet strategy for managing German reunification.

  • February 13, 1990

    Bush-Kohl Telephone Conversation on the Situation in Germany

    Telephone conversation between President George H. W. Bush and German Chancellor Helmut Kohl on the situation in Germany.

  • October 03, 1990

    Bush-Kohl Telephone Conversation on the Situation in Germany

    Telephone conversation between President George H. W. Bush and German Chancellor Helmut Kohl on the situation in Germany.

  • September 16, 1991

    From the Interview by the Honorary Chairman of the SPD, Brandt, with Die Welt

    Willy Brandt's interview with Die Welt on unified Germany and the break-up of the Soviet Union.