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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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“Local Nationalism" in Xinjiang, 1957-1958

At the end of 1957, the Xinjiang Party Committee announced the convening of an enlarged plenum, with the goal of exposing and criticizing so-called local nationalist deviations. Originally scheduled to last only a few weeks, the meeting dragged on for an extraordinary six months, only concluding in June 1958. This collection is introduced by David Brophy in an essay for Sources and Methods. For other collections about Xinjiang, see "China and the Soviet Union in Xinjiang, 1934-1949," and "The Yi-Ta Incident, 1962."

  • January 07, 1958

    Memorandum on a Discussion held by the Consul-General of the USSR in Ürümchi, G.S. DOBASHIN, with the Secretary of the Party Committee of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Comrade LÜ JIANREN

    Lü Jianren briefs Dobashin on calls for an independent Uyghur republic.

  • January 12, 1958

    Memorandum on a Discussion held by the Consul-General of the USSR in Ürümchi, G.S. DOBASHIN, with Deputy Chairman of the People’s Committee of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Comrade XIN LANTING

    Xin Lanting discusses growing calls for the separation of Xinjiang from the People's Republic of China.

  • January 17, 1958

    Memorandum of a Discussion held by USSR Consul-General in Ürümchi, G S. Dobashin, with First Secretary of the Party Committee of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Comrade Wang Enmao, and Chair of the People’s Committee, Comrade S. Äzizov

    In a conversation with the Soviet Consul-General, Wang Enmao describes "local nationalism" within Xinjiang and open hostility towards Chinese Communist Party rule.

  • January 20, 1958

    Note from G. Dobashin, Consul-General of the USSR in Ürümchi, to Comrades N.T. Fedorenko, Zimianin, and P.F. Iudin

    G. Dobashin summarizes recent talks with leading officials in Xinjiang, including Wang Enmao, S. Äzizov, and Xin Lanting, about the Party Plenum in Xinjiang. Full versions of the conversations are attached to the file.

  • January 22, 1958

    Memorandum on a Discussion with Wang Huangzhang, Head of the Foreign Affairs Office of the Prefectural People's Committee

    Wang Huangzhang reports on "local nationalism" in Xinjiang and poor agricultural conditions in the region.

  • February 05, 1958

    Iu. Andropov to the Central Committee of the CPSU, 'On the Struggle with Local Nationalism in China'

    Iu. Andropov of the Liaison Department of the Central Committee of the CPSU describes Chinese Communist Party meetings in Xinjiang and "local nationalism" in China's far northwest.

  • February 10, 1958

    Note, M. Zimianin to the Central Committee of the CPSU and to Comrade Iu. V. Andropov

    A cover sheet for a memorandum of conversation between Soviet diplomats and leading officials in Xinjiang.

  • March 03, 1958

    M. Zimianin to the Central Committee of the CPSU and to Comrade Iu. V. Andropov, 'On Manifestations of Local Nationalism in Xinjiang (PRC)'

    During party meetings in Xinjiang, some individuals advocated for the creation of an independent Uyghur republic.

  • August 18, 1958

    M. Zimianin to the Department of the Central Committee of the CPSU and to Comrade Iu. V. Andropov

    E. I. Shalunov meets with the Chief of the Education Department of the People’s Committee of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Comrade Zakirov, to discuss criticisms against other local leaders in XUAR and recent Party meetings.