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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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Nikita Khrushchev Collection

Documents containing the thoughts and opinions of Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev. The earliest document is from 1955 and the latest is from 1968. Most are from Russian archives, along with a few Bulgarian and Romanian documents. The collection includes comments on Stalin, the post-Stalin Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and the 1956 uprisings in Poland and Hungary. The documents also broadly cover his opinions on various states, nations, the Soviet Union, and socialism.See also 1956 Polish and Hungarian Crisis and Post Stalin Succession Struggle. (Image, Khrushchev and Kennedy, 1961, JFK Library)

  • February 08, 1955

    [Uncorrected] Transcript of a Meeting of the Party group of the USSR Supreme Soviet on 8 February 1955

    Khrushchev reads the decision of the Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU that states that Georgy Malenkov does not have the knowledge or experience to fulfill the post of Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers. The decision lists political mistakes that Malenkov has made, including his close relationship to Lavrenti Beria. Khrushchev upholds this decision, citing examples of Malenkov's political and ideological weakness: his support for abandoning socialism in East Germany in favor of a unified, neutral Germany and his emphasis of light industry over heavy industry, among others. Malenkov speaks, accepting responsibility for his mistakes and agreeing with the CC Plenum decision. Khrushchev then nominates N. A. Bulganin to replace Malenkov as Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers and G. K. Zhukov to replace Bulganin as Minister of Defense; both nominations are accepted. Malenkov is given the posts of Minister of Electric Power Stations and Deputy Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers.

  • July 12, 1955

    Central Committee Plenum of the CPSU Ninth Session, Concluding Word by Com. N. S. Krushchev

    Khrushchev responds to the accusations raised by Cde. Molotov about the state of Soviet foreign policy. He discusses the Soviet relationship with the Yugoslav leadership, the Austrian treaty, Soviet-US relations.

  • 1956

    Visit to the United Kingdom of Bulganin and Khrushchev, 19-27 April 1956

    UK record of discussions with a Soviet delegation including Bulganin and Khrushchev.

  • February 25, 1956

    Khrushchev's Secret Speech, 'On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences,' Delivered at the Twentieth Party Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

    In a secret speech before a closed plenum of the 20th Congress of the CPSU, Khrushchev denounced Stalin’s cult of the personality. In addition, he revealed that Stalin had rounded up thousands of people and sent them into a huge system of political work camps (Gulags). This revelation was met with astonishment by many present for the speech, but helped to break the power that Stalin still held over the country.

  • March 20, 1956

    Speech by Comrade Khrushchev at the 6th PUWP CC Plenum, Warsaw

    Speech by Comrade Khrushchev at the 6th PUWP CC Plenum, 20 March 1956, Warsaw explaining the changes since the death of Stalin and criticizing Stalin

  • October 06, 1956

    Note from N. Khrushchev to the CPSU CC Presidium regarding conversations with Yugoslav leaders in Belgrade

    Khrushchev reports on his conversations with Tito and other Yugoslav leaders during his visit to Yugolsavia. The first conversation addressed the bread shortage in Yugoslavia, a trade agreement between the two countries and the structure of Yugoslav agriculture. The second conversation addressed Soviet-Yugoslav relations and the issues of building socialism, the international press, Marxist-Leninist policy, and Yugoslav relations with other European socialist countries.

  • October 08, 1956

    Note from N. Khrushchev to the CPSU CC Presidium regarding conversations with Yugoslav leaders in Yugoslavia

    Khrushchev describes his conversations with Josip Broz Tito during his visit to Yugoslavia. They discussed the issues of U.S. aid to Yugoslavia, the Turkish and Greek conflict over Cyprus, the expansion of contact between Soviet and Yugoslav workers and the path to socialism. Tito appeared uneasy and was dissatisfied with relations between the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia.

  • October 08, 1956

    Note from N. Khrushchev to the CPSU CC Presidium regarding conversations with Yugoslav leaders in the Crimea

    Khrushchev describes his conversations with Josip Broz Tito regarding Soviet-Yugoslav relations. The leaders discussed Yugoslavia's need for economic and technological assistance from the Soviet Union; socialist methods and ideology; alignment on international issues; and amnesty for Communist fugitives returning to Yugoslavia. Khrushchev expresses concern about the behavior of Yugoslav diplomats and the Yugoslav press. He recommends to the CPSU CC that increasing contact with Yugoslav leaders will facilitate rapprochement between the Parties.

  • November 01, 1956

    Bulgarian Military Intelligence Information on the Situation in Hungary and Poland

    This intelligence report discusses the domestic political developments in Poland after the ascent of Wladyslaw Gomulka to the top of the Polish United Workers' Party (PZPR).The events surrounding the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 are also mentioned.

  • November 04, 1956

    Stenographic record of a 4 November 1956 meeting of Party activists

    Khrushchev describes the events of the counterrevolution in Hungary and the crisis in Poland. He recounts the CPSU's consultations with other communist parties in the socialist camp to determine their attitude toward Soviet intervention, particularly in Hungary. Leaders from China, Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia agreed with the Soviet position, but Polish leaders opposed the presence of Soviet troops in Hungary. Khrushchev reports that following these meetings, the CPSU CC Presidium decided to prepare for an attack on the counterrevolutionary forces in Hungary. He then reads aloud an open letter which declares the Hungarian Revolutionary Workers and Peasants Government. He gives details about the suppression of the counterrevolution by Soviet armed forces and the positive reaction of the socialist countries. He states that the lessons of the counterrevolution are to improve relations with the fraternal parties and the socialist countries and to treat them with respect; to improve political work among students and the masses so that they are not mislead by counterrevolutionaries; and to strengthen the Soviet Army.

  • April, 1957

    Khrushchev’s Speech at the Lunch Organized in Honor of the Albanian Government and Party Delegation, Moscow

    Khrushchev defends Enver Hoxha against personal attacks from Josip Broz Tito, but emphasizes cooperation between Yugoslavia and socialist camp. Khrushchev also suggests that Albania is a potential foothold for the spread of socialism to Asian, African, and Middle Eastern countries, and calls for "ideological war" in order to spread influence to these areas.

  • April, 1957

    Handwritten Notes from Khrushchev’s Talks with the Albanian Delegation

    Khrushchev, speaking to an Albanian delegation, emphasizes that ideology cannot be divorced from practical economic realities. He suggests that Albania must develop its economy, with the support of the Soviet Union, in order to make its workers content, and give off an attractive image of socialism to Arab countries so that socialism may spread into these areas. Khrushchev criticizes Stalin for not recognizing the important link between ideology and economic practicality, and concludes with mentions of current situations in Yugoslavia, Poland and Hungary.

  • April 15, 1957

    Memorandum of Conversation with Soviet Leaders on Party-Related Issues

    Hoxha complains to Khrushchev about Yugoslavia's conduct toward Albania. While Khrushchev says that the Soviet Union will back Albania, he complains about Hoxha's personal demeanor and emotional complaints about Yugoslavia. Khrushchev also criticizes Albania's decision to execute a woman, and a Yugoslav national.

  • April 17, 1958

    Letter addressed by N.S. Khrushchev, First Secretary of the CC of the CPSU to the CC of the RWP concerning the withdrawal of Soviet troops from the Romanian territory

    Letter from Nikita Khrushchev to Gheorghiu Dej, informing the Romanian leadership of the decision taken by the Soviet leadership to withdraw the Soviet Red Army troops from the territory of Romania. Military and security services advisors will however remain in place until 1963.

  • December 08, 1959

    Khrushchev Memorandum to CC CPSU Presidium

    Khrushchev proposes a unilateral reduction of armaments and personnel of the armed forces, promoting a more positive international image while still maintaining strong defense capabilities.

  • December 14, 1959

    CC CPSU Presidium Decision, 'About Further Steps in the Struggle for Reduction of International Tension'

    CPSU Presidium approves Khrushchev's proposals for unilateral reduction of armaments and personnel of the armed forces, and directs military leaders to meet to discuss practical measures related to the proposal.

  • December 26, 1959

    CC CPSU Plenum Protocol, 'About the Measures of the Soviet Government Aimed at the Reduction of Iternational Tension'

    CPSU Plenum approves Khrushchev's proposals for unilateral reduction of armaments and personnel of the armed forces.

  • January 06, 1960

    Conversation of N. S. Khrushchev with Indian writer Kh[oja] A[hmed] Abbas, 6 January 1960

    Responding to questions about contemporary capitalist states and the transition from capitalism to socialism, Khrushchev discusses the nature of socialism, capitalism and class struggle, comparing the situation in the Soviet Union to that in the United States and Great Britain. Khrushchev discusses the progression of Marxism and his belief in the possible peaceful coexistence of capitalist and socialist countries. However, he emphasizes the spiritual and material advantages of socialism. The conversation ends with a discussion of poetry and of the scientific advances of the Soviet Union, particularly in space. Khrushchev's upcoming visit to India is mentioned.

  • March 01, 1960

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Indonesia, 'Memorandum of Conversation: Ambassador Huang Meets with Comrade Khrushchev'

    Huang Zhen and Nikita Khrushchev briefly discuss Sino-Soviet relations, Sino-Indian relations, and Soviet-Indonesian relations during a visit by Khrushchev to Jakarta.

  • October 10, 1960

    Dictated by Cde. N. S. Khrushchev on 10 October 1960

    Khrushchev reports on the proceedings at the United Nations in New York and his delegation's travel plans for returning to Moscow. He mentions his approval of plans to purchase buildings in New York for Ukrainian and Belorussian missions to the UN. He also suggests that they purchase an American car to bring back for the benefit of Soviet auto designers. He concludes with criticisms of the United States and New York.