This is a collection of primary source documents concerning the Non-Aligned Movement, also referred to as NAM. This anti-colonial movement was spearheaded by several conferences and summits, the first held in Bandung in 1955. The collection mostly contains telegrams and reports related to the 1961 Belgrade Summit. Nearly all of the items are from Albanian archives. Many of the documents are requests for the 1961 conference to be held in a specific location, as well as Soviet views on the conference, and telegrams and reports sent directly from the conference itself. Finally, there are a few notes from various meetings of world leaders that touch on the status of NAM in later years. (Image, Nasser, Tito, and Nehru)
June 03, 1961
Telegram from the Albanian Ambassador in Iraq Ulvi Lulo to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania
This document is a telegram from the Albanian Ambassador in Baghdad, Ulvi Lulo, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania dealing with the preparation of the upcoming conference of non-aligned countries. The ambassador writes that there are disputes among the leaders of the non-aligned states on the location of the conference. Nasser, Nehru and Castro ask for the conference to take place on the territory of their respective countries. In addition, Nehru requests that certain neutral Western countries such as Sweden, Austria, and Switzerland, should participate in the conference. According to Lulo, these Western countries are supporters of American policy.
June 05, 1961
Telegram from Nesti Nase, the Albanian ambassador to the USSR, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania
Nase writes that the Soviet government carefully attempts to give the conference of non-aligned countries an anti-imperialist and anti-colonialist character. The Soviet position on these issues is based on the resolution prepared by Asian and African countries in the 15th session of the UN on disarmament, which in the end was not voted upon, and on the declaration on decolonization approved by the UN.
June 06, 1961
Telegram from an official in the Albanian embassy in Beijing Lilo Zeneli to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania
Zeneli writes about his meeting with the 2nd Secretary in the Cuban embassy in Beijing who asked Zeneli about his opinion on the conference of non-aligned countries in Belgrade. Zeneli answered that the Albanian government greets any initiative which aims to help the struggle against imperialism and colonialism with the objective of establishing peace. He also declared that Yugoslavia is not a non-aligned state because it participated in the Balkan military pact with Greece and Turkey, both of which are members of NATO. The 2nd Secretary of Cuba expressed his hope that there will be positive results during the conference that would lessen the international tensions between the two blocs.
June 07, 1961
Telegram from the Albanian ambassador in Cairo, Delo Balili, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania
The ambassador informs the Ministry that the conference of non-aligned countries is still in session, and is divided into three groups. Balili calls the first group “rightists”, which includes India and Yugoslavia among others. He calls the second group “leftists”, which includes Cuba, Guinea, Somalia, etc. The last group, according to Balili, are the “centrists” which include the United Arab Republic, Ghana, etc. In this telegram, Balili describes the contentions between the three groups.
June 10, 1961
Telegram from Delo Balili to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania
Balili writes that the location of the upcoming conference of non-aligned countries will be a contentious issue for the participants. The UAR and India have proposed Belgrade. This location is supported by the British and Americans.
June 12, 1961
Report on the meeting between Delo Balili, the Albanian ambassador to Cairo, and Raúl Roa
Raúl Roa is the head of the Cuban delegation to the preparatory conference for the upcoming non-aligned countries conference. Roa invited all the diplomats of socialist countries to his mansion for lunch on June 9. He informed the diplomats about the different groups established in the conference concerning their opinions on revisionism. On one hand, was India, Cambodia, Nepal, Burma, Algeria and Yugoslavia. All of them request that there will be no display of anti-imperialist and anti-colonialist spirit at the conference. On the other hand, Cuba, Guinea, Mali, Ghana, Ceylon, and to a certain extent the UAR and Iraq, requested that there should be anti-imperialist and anti-colonialist discourse during the conference. Roa also informed that Belgrade was decided upon to be the location of the conference. At first upon hearing that Belgrade would be the location Roa hesitated, but later he decided to participate in order to create a “left-wing” group with anti-imperialist character in the conference. He received the recommendation for the creation of this group from the Soviet, Chinese and Czech delegations. After the meeting, Malile was informed that Roa has prolonged his stay in Cairo because the Arabs and Indians agreed jointly to make some changes to the conference documents during their printing. Roa intended to stay in order to halt these actions.
June 14, 1961
Telegram from Gaqo Paze, the Albanian Ambassador to the GDR, to the Foreign Affairs Ministry of Albania
The Chinese ambassador to Berlin expressed to Gaqo Paze that the participation of Cuba in the conference of non-aligned countries, which is to be held in Belgrade, is a positive act because the Cuban representatives will speak out against American imperialism. In addition, the Chinese ambassador said that the act of organizing the conference is not a positive development.
June 15, 1961
Telegram from the vice-minister of foreign affairs of Albania, Vasil Nathanalili, to the Albanian embassy in Budapest
The person-in-charge of the Hungarian embassy in Tirana informed Vasil Skorovoti, the Albanian diplomat in the Albanian Foreign ministry, that the Hungarian government wants to consult with the friendly governments of the socialist camp on the proposal to have the same stance on the non-aligned countries conference. The Hungarian government does not approve of the conference, but it thinks that the divisions among the non-aligned countries should be exploited by the socialist bloc in order to change the character of the conference to one of anti-imperialism and anti-colonialism. The Hungarian government wants to know the Albanian government’s stance on this issue. The Albanian government asks the Albanian embassy in Budapest to gather information on this issue in order to respond to the Hungarian government as soon as possible.
July 18, 1961
Telegram of Delo Balili, the Albanian ambassador to Cairo, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Balili reports that the Indian ambassador to Cairo had told him that President Nehru would participate personally in the conference of non-aligned countries because the main goal of the conference was to find a formula for rapprochement between the Soviet Union and the United States, and for disarmament in general. According to the Indian ambassador, the disappearance of the issues of colonialism and racial discrimination from the conference documents are not urgent problems. In November, Nehru would meet with Khrushchev and, later with Kennedy.
August 01, 1961
Telegram from Jovan Andoni, an official in the Albanian Embassy in Poland, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania
Andoni reports that the advisor in the Cuban embassy in Warsaw had told him that he has not received any official information from the Cuban government and, according to him, Cuba would not participate in the conference of non-aligned countries in Belgrade.
August 26, 1961
Report on the 1st conference of the non-aligned countries of September 1st, 1961 sent by Tahmaz Beqari, the Albanian ambassador in Belgrade, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania
The conference of non-aligned countries in Belgrade was organized when Indonesia and other countries of Asia and Africa were attempting to organize a Second Bandung Conference. Tito and Nehru, trying to minimize the influence of China in the Asian and African countries, initiated a conference that they called the Conference of Non-Aligned Countries in Belgrade. The document discusses the 24 participating countries, the agenda, the proceedings, the different groups among the delegation and the two main documents that the conference adopted: the manifesto and the declaration. The manifesto, titled “The Danger from the War and the Call for Peace,” according to the Albanian ambassador, was adopted in a revisionist spirit, calling on Khrushchev and Kennedy to maintain peace. Meanwhile, the declaration criticized colonialism and imperialism. The Belgrade conference did not decide on any specific issues and did not reach any important conclusions. In Albania, a week after the conference, the journal “Zeri i Popullit” (Voice of the People) wrote an article in which it identified Tito as an agent of imperialism and stated that Yugoslavia was not an non-aligned country as it participated in the Balkan Pact.
September 03, 1961
Telegram from the Albanian ambassador in Belgrade, Tahmaz Beqari, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania
The ambassador reports on the proceedings of the Belgrade conference of non-aligned countries, and about the differences and nuances of the stances of various delegations. Except India, Libya, and the United Arab Republic, all delegations were in favor of China’s participation in the United Nations. In addition, Nehru pointed out that colonialism is in agony while the Ghanaian, Cuban, Iraqi, Nepalese and Ethiopian delegations claimed to the contrary. When Dorticós, the Cuban President, began unmasking American imperialism, the diplomats of Western countries left the conference. The diplomats of friendly countries, according to Beqari, called the speeches of the conference “80% positive.”
September 04, 1961
Telegram from the Albanian ambassador in Budapest, Edip Cuci, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
The Albanian ambassador reports that the Hungarian press published Khrushchev’s message to the Belgrade conference of non-aligned countries and excerpts of different speeches by participants of the conference. Hungarian television showed excerpts from the conference as well.
June 26, 1964
Report on the 1st and 2nd Conference of Non-Aligned Countries
According to this report, the African and Asian countries were not satisfied with the 1st Belgrade conference and were trying to call what is known today as the 2nd non-aligned conference in Bandung. Tito and Nehru also reiterated the need for the 2nd conference of non-aligned countries in order to undermine the attempts of the former in initiating the effort. According to the Western press, Nehru took the initiative and sent his Vice-Foreign Minister, Dinish Sing, to Cairo and Belgrade where he met Nasser and Tito, both of whom were expecting him. Tito called for more participants from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. According to Tito’s recommendation, on March 23, 1964, in Colombo, Ceylon, the preparatory meeting was held on the ambassadorial level of Asian, African, and Latin American countries about the upcoming conference. The Soviet Union expressed its support for this conference in Soviet media. The report reveals the following to be discussed topics at the conference: peace, peaceful coexistence, resolution of disputes without the use of force, disarmament, etc. The Albanian government supports the conference of non-aligned countries in principle, but it does not show enthusiasm and avoids promoting the conference in Albania, in the media, and in the international arena. In addition, the report stresses that Albanian diplomats are ordered to follow the Ministry’s guidelines in order to maintain specific policies targeted at each Asian and African country individually.
June 28, 1967
The Visit of the Czechoslovak President's Special Envoy, V. Koucki, to the UAR
The document summarizes Czechoslovak Politburo Secretary Vladimir Koucki's conversations with UAR President Gamal A. Nasser, Vice President Zakaria Muhi al-Din,and Arab Socialist Union (ASU) Secretary Ali Sabri during his visit to the UAR. The conversations concerned the Arab-Israeli War of 1967 and the UAR's military and economic situation. Koucki draws three conclusions about the UAR's position, mentioning pressure from internal and external reactionary forces and the lagging national economy. The appendix contains a report on military issues raised during a conversation between the commander of the UAR armed forces, General Muhammad Fawzi, and General Miroslav Smoldash of the Czech delegation. Koucki attributes Egypt's defeat in the war to technical and tactical weaknesses of the military leadership. He recommends that Czech cooperation with the UAR include economic support, military training, and delivery of military equipment.
September 21, 1968
Telegram from Haxhi Lleshi to Gamal Abdel Nasser
This document is a telegram from the Chairman of the Presidium of the People’s Council of the People’s Republic of Albania, Haxhi Lleshi, to the President of the United Arab Republic (UAR) Gamal Abdel Nasser. Lleshi declares in the letter that the Albanian government sees the situation in the Mediterranean as insecure. The factors that contribute to this state are the hegemony and forceful policies of the United States and the Soviet Union. He adds that both countries deployed their fleets in the Mediterranean. According to various sources, the Albanian government knows that the belligerent Soviet fleet is deployed in various sea bases in the UAR, a “freedom-loving” country and a friend of Albania. The Albanian people are ready to defend their sovereignty and, especially, their coastline from any aggression. Albania supported the struggle of the Arab people against the Israeli attacks of June 5, 1967. Lleshi expresses confidence that the government of the UAR will not allow the use of its ports as bases for aggressive actions against the People’s Republic of Albania.
September 27, 1973
Hungarian Embassy in the DPRK, Report, 27 September 1973. Subject: The DPRK and the Non-Aligned Summit in Algiers
A Hungarian diplomat explains the DPRK’s objectives for the Non-Aligned Movement in 1973 and the passage of a resolution on the Korean Question at the Algiers Conference.
June 11, 1975
Todor Zhivkov’s Consultations with Soviet Experts on Relations with Romania
Prior to his visit to Bucharest, Todor Zhivkov meets Soviet representatives in Sofia in an attempt to co-ordinate Bulgarian policy toward Romania with the Soviet government. They discuss Soviet-Romanian relations, role of Romania in the Conference for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Romania in the Warsaw Pact and COMECON, Romania and the Non-Aligned Movement, Sino-Soviet relations, etc.
September 01, 1979
Soviet Ambassador to Cuba Vorotnikov, Memorandum of Conversation with Raul Castro
Raul Castro discusses with the Soviet Ambassador in Cuba the position to be adopted by the Cuban and Soviet governments with regard to the presence of Soviet soldiers in Cuba. Raul Castro also informs the Soviet Ambassador of the discussions that took place between Fidel Castro and Josip Tito in Havana during the meeting of the non-aligned countries.
Soviet briefing on the correspondence between Tito and Brezhnev
This document reveals correspondence between Brezhnev and Tito. Tito expresses his worries about international politics relating to NATO's decision regarding long/medium range missiles, and advocates for Soviet troop withdrawal from Afghanistan. Brezhnev emphasizes the ideological and pragmatic importance of Soviet involvement in the Middle East, and discusses the role of NATO in Europe.