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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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Pakistani Nuclear History

Documents on the history of Pakistani nuclear development. See also Nuclear Proliferation, and the related collections in the Nuclear Proliferation International History Project. (Image, monument to Pakistan's first nuclear tests, Islamabad, Khalid Mahmood)

  • June, 1978

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Special Projects Division, 'Proliferation Group Quarterly Report, January – March 1978'

    This issue includes an extract from a recent study on Pakistan and two highly technical articles relating to on-going research to identify the signatures of high explosives used for the implosion method of nuclear detonation. It also includes a report that utilized open literature and classified intelligence, including two satellite photographs, the purpose of the article is to illuminate how the South African Government intended to use the site, down to the depth and thickness of the bore holes.

  • September 01, 1978

    'Next Steps on Pakstani Reprocessing Issue,' US Embassy Paris cable 29233 to State Department

    Summary of a meeting with French non-proliferation advisor Andre Jacoment. Discussion of the consequences of the French government's cancellation of a project to build a plutonium reprocessing plant at Chashma, Pakistan.

  • September 03, 1978

    'Pakistan Reprocessing vs. French Commercial Deals,' Embassy Islamabad cable to State Department

    Report on status of France-Pakistan deal for saviem trucks, which was connected with the recently canceled plutonium reprocessing plant project.

  • September 05, 1978

    'Ambassador’s Talk with General Zia,' Embassy Islamabad cable to State Department

    Ambassador Hummel describes a conversation with General Zia. They discussed the cancellation of the French reprocessing project, disputes over the Pakistani-Afghan border, and the Central Treaty Organization (CENTRO).

  • September 07, 1978

    'Next Steps on Pakistan Reprocessing Deal,' State Department Cable 227260 to US Embassy France

    The United States wants a public announcement from the French that the Pakistan plutonium reprocessing plant project is officially canceled.

  • September 13, 1978

    'Smith-Jacomet Meeting: French Position on Cancellation of Pakistan Reprocessing Plant Contract,' US Embassy Vienna cable to State Department

    Summary of meeting between Gerald C. Smith and Andre Jacomet. France refuses to give a public announcement about the cancellation of the Pakistan reprocessing plant project due to fears of controversy in France.

  • September 15, 1978

    'Congressional Consultations on Pakistan,' State Department cable 235372 to US Embassy Vienna

    Plans for meetings with Congress members to discuss resuming aid to Pakistan. Talking points include the cancellation of the French reprocessing plant deal and the importance of Pakistan's position in the Middle East. Also includes discussion of Pakistan's nuclear ambitions, technical capabilities, and the United States' efforts to block their nuclear development.

  • September 19, 1978

    'French Export of Centrifuges for Pakistani Reprocessing Plant,' State Department cable to Paris Embassy 237312

    Request for the Paris Embassy to discreetly look into an export license granted to the French company Robatel to export centrifuges to Pakistan.

  • September 21, 1978

    'Update on French Pakistani Reprocessing Situation,' Paris Embassy cable 31253 to State Department

    Andre Jacomet denied that a license had been issued to Robatel to export centrifuges to Pakistan. He also discussed the possibility of France issuing a higher level demarche on the cancellation of the Pakistan reprocessing plant project.

  • September 23, 1978

    US Embassy Paris cable 31540 to State Department, 'Elysée Views on Reprocessing Issues'

    A source in President Giscard's staff informed the US embassy that Pakistan was determined to complete the reprocessing plant and was searching for another country willing to supply the necessary technology. Also discusses a developing nuclear deal between West Germany and Brazil.

  • November 01, 1978

    'UK Approach to Supplier Governments on Pakistan,' State Department cable 278247 to US Embassy Bonn et al.

    Summary of a British report on problems with the export "trigger list" of the Nuclear Suppliers Group. The list did not include gray area items that could be used in building nuclear facilities. To begin correcting the problem, the British announced a ban of inverter exports and asked other governments to take parallel steps. Also includes a summary of a secret British paper on Pakistan nuclear intentions. The British believed that the “piecemeal” Pakistani purchasing efforts to acquire inverters were directly related to the building of a gas centrifuge unit for producing weapons-grade uranium. Attached to the cable is a 7 November "Memorandum for the Record" discussing sharing this information with the Department of Energy.

  • November 02, 1978

    'Pakistani Reprocessing Plant,' US Embassy London cable 18055 to State Department

    Comments by Robert Alston of the British Foreign Office on the State Department's "non-paper" on Pakistan. He questions the list of countries and expresses concern about the response of states with their own covert nuclear programs, like South Korea and Taiwan.

  • November 02, 1978

    'US Demarche on Pakistani Reprocessing Plant,' US Embassy Paris cable 36143 to State Department

    Comments by French advisor Jacomet on the State Department's demarche on Pakistani nuclear development. Jacomet stated that the French government was planning a similar demarche. He was most concerned about the response of Italy and West Germany.

  • November 02, 1978

    'IAEA Safeguards in Pakistan,' State Department cable 279373 to US Embassy Austria, for US Mission IAEA

    The State Department asks for information on a letter sent by IAEA Director General Eklund to Munir Khan of the Pakistani atomic energy commission. IAEA inspectors in Pakistan should also be alert to "any questionable use of facilities or disposition of safeguarded material."

  • November 04, 1978

    'US Demarche on Pakistani Reprocessing Plant,' Department of State cable 281962 to US Embassy United Kingdom et al.

    U.S. demarche and "non-paper" on Pakistan's attempts to complete the plutonium reprocessing plant and develop nuclear weapons. Sent to 12 countries to ensure that they "exercise vigilance and appropriate control to deter Pakistan from acquiring sensitive facilities."

  • November 06, 1978

    'IAEA Safeguards in Pakistan,' US Embassy Austria cable 10102 to State Department

    Summary of conversation with IAEA official Davi Fischer. Fischer stated that Director Eklund had not yet written to the Pakistani atomic energy commission. He also reported a number of "troubling bits of information" on the situation in Pakistan.

  • November 06, 1978

    'US Demarche on Pakistani Reprocessing Plant,' US Embassy Australia cable 9140 to State Department

    Australian response to U.S. demarche on Pakistani nuclear development, agreeing to cooperate fully.

  • November 06, 1978

    'US Demarche on Pakistani Reprocessing Plant,' US Embassy United Kingdom cable 18209 to State Department

    United Kingdom response to U.S. demarche on Pakistani nuclear development. U.K. and U.S. Embassies will be cooperating in delivering information to Spain and Belgium.

  • November 07, 1978

    'US Demarche on Pakistani Reprocessing Plant,' US Embassy Italy cable 21617 to State Department

    Italian response to U.S. demarche on Pakistani nuclear development. Reports that Pakistan has not yet requested any equipment from Italy, but if they did Italy would follow all mandated safeguards.

  • November 07, 1978

    'US Demarche on Pakistani Reprocessing Plant,' US Embassy Sweden cable 4456 to State Department

    Swedish response to U.S. demarche on Pakistani nuclear development, agreeing to cooperate fully.