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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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Sino-Soviet Relations

This is a collection of primary source documents that discuss the Soviet-Chinese relationship during the Cold War. Composed largely of cables, memos, and telegrams, this collection spans the 1930s through 1959, or the period prior to the split. See also The Sino-Soviet Split, 1960-1984. (Image, Soviet propaganda poster, "Friends Forever.")

  • September 30, 1930

    Resolution of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and Soviet of the People’s Commissars of the RSFSR, 'About the Practical Conduct of Nationalities Policy in the Far East Region in Regard to Chinese and Koreans'

    The All-Russian Central Executive Committee lists inadequacies in meeting the needs of Korean and Chinese laborers in the Far Eastern region of the Soviet Union. Problems include interethnic tensions, inequality in labor conditions, inequality in education, capitalist economic activity, lack of Chinese and Korean in state administration and social organizations, and unsatisfactory implementation of resettlement plans.

  • June 26, 1944

    Record of a Conversation with Percy Chen

    D. Godnunov reports that he discussed military developments in the Sino-Japanese War with Percy Chen, as well as the visit to China made by US Vice President Henry Wallace.

  • July, 1945

    Message from Averell Harriman to the President and Secretary of State

    Harriman reports on Chiang Kai-Shek and Stalin's bartering over the status of Outer Mongolia. Chiang refuses to recognize its independence now, but offers to hold a plebiscite after the war.

  • July 02, 1945

    Record of a Meeting between T.V. Soong and Stalin

    Notes taken during meetings between the Chinese nationalist government and the Soviet Union in Moscow during Sino-Soviet treaty negotiations.

  • July 03, 1945

    Memorandum of Conversation between Averell Harriman and T. V. Soong, 'Far Eastern Conversations with Generalissimo Stalin'

    Harriman reports on Soong and Stalin's July 2 conversation on ports and the issue of Outer Mongolia.

  • July 03, 1945

    Cable, Summary of Averell Harriman Meeting with Stalin and T. V. Soong

    Harriman reports on Stalin and Soong's July 2, 1945 meeting regarding Stalin's attitudes towards a Sino-Soviet railroad and the internationaliztion of ports.

  • July 03, 1945

    Cable, Summary of Averell Harriman Meeting with T. V. Soong

    Harriman reports on his meeting with Dr. Soong, in which Soong provides him with detailed notes from his July 2, 1945 meeting with Stalin. Soong is concerned that Stalin does not understand the importance of China's territorial integrity in regards to Outer Mongolia, asks for the stance of the United States' government on this issue. Harriman reports on Stalin and Soong's discussion of open ports and Korea.

  • July 05, 1945

    Cable, Summary of Averell Harriman Meeting with T. V. Soong

    Soong promises to, in his future meeting with Stalin, adhere to the Yalta agreement on the issue of Outer Mongolia and to emphasize the territorial integrity of China.

  • July 07, 1945

    Record of a Meeting Between T. V. Soong and Stalin

    Stalin and Dr. Soong continue their discussions on Outer Mongolia, Soong reports Chian Kai-Shek's intention to preserve the status quo of Outer Mongolia according to the Yalta agreement. Stalin and Soong end their meeting in disagreement.

  • July 09, 1945

    Record of a Meeting Between T. V. Soong and Stalin

    Dr. Soong reports Chiang Kai-Shek's response to the stalemate on the question of Outer Mongolia to Stalin and Molotov. Chiang insists on preserving the territorial integrity of China vis a vis Outer Mongolia and Manchuria, and that China's sovereignty in Manchuria should be reinforced by Chinese administration of Port Arthur and Dairen. Stalin asks to think over his decision before responding to Chiang.

  • July 10, 1945

    Cable, Summary of Averell Harriman Meeting with T. V. Soong

    Harriman reports that Soong and Stalin have come to an agreement over the issue of Outer Mongolia, and that China will recognize Outer Mongolia's independence in light of Stalin's proposed Treaty of Alliance between the two nations. Border disputes over Outer Mongolia and Sinkiang remain, as well as the issue of a joint Sino-Soviet railway and the administration of Port Arthur and Dairen.

  • July 10, 1945

    Record of a Meeting Between T. V. Soong and V. M. Molotov

    Molotov and Soong author a Soviet-Chinese treaty regarding Outer Mongolia, Soviet troops, railways, port Dairen and Port Arthur.

  • July 11, 1945

    Cable, Summary of Averell Harriman Meeting with T. V. Soong

    Harriman summarizes the July 11 meeting of Dr. Soong and Stalin, reporting that Stalin has ceded the right of Soviet troops to operate in Manchuria and that China has agreed to acknowledge Outer Mongolia's sovereignty. Dairen and Port Arthur will remain under SOviet military control; there remains dispute over the administration of the Chinese-Soviet railway.

  • July 12, 1945

    Record of a Meeting Between T.V. Soong and Stalin

    Stalin and T.V. Soong review outstanding issues affecting Sino-Soviet relations in 1945.

  • August 08, 1945

    Memorandum of Conversation between W. A. Harriman and Stalin

    American ambassador W.A. Harriman and Joseph Stalin discuss the right of use for Russian built railroads in Chinese Manchuria, as well as the status of the ports of Darien and Port Arthur.

  • February 19, 1946

    Memorandum of Conversation of the Soviet Ambassador to China A.A. Petrov with the Chinese Minister of Foreign Affairs Wang Shijie

    Soviet Ambassaodr Petrov reports on a conversation with the Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Shijie. Shijie raises concerns about disputes between the Soviet and Chinese administration over the withdrawl of Soviet troops from the region and the control of property seized from the Japanese during the war. Petrov also raises the issue of Anti-Soviet demonstrations and propaganda in China.

  • May 06, 1946

    From the Diary of V.M. Molotov, Reception of the Chinese Ambassador to France, Jing Tai, on 6 May 1946 at 3:00 p.m. in the Soviet Embassy in Paris

    The conversation is concerning the "German question" in terms of the conditions and aftermath of the surrender. PR China sees the negotiation on Germany as becoming an agreement that might apply similar to the question on the Japanese surrender. For this reason Jing Tai asks Molotov to allow China to take part in the negotiations on Germany. The trials of Japanese war criminals were also discussed.

  • June 04, 1946

    Memorandum of Conversation, Soviet Ambassador to China A.A. Petrov with Minister of Foreign Affairs Wang Shijie, 1 June 1946

    Wang Shijie presented a draft of suggestions from the Chinese side about economic collaboration in Manchuria, as a proposal. This includes common mine excavations and the Chinese right to use Japanese enterprises in the former occupied Manchuria until the disagreement over the distribution of enemy property confiscated during the war was settled.

  • June 15, 1947

    Cable, Stalin [Kuznetsov] to Mao Zedong [via Terebin]

    Stalin, writing under the pseudonym “Fyodor Kuznetsov,” who was Stalin’s Chief of the GRU, tells “Terebin,” actually Soviet doctor and operative in Yan’an Andrei Orlov, to arrange a secret meeting in Moscow with Mao Zedong.

  • July 01, 1947

    Cable, Stalin [Kuznetsov] to Mao Zedong [via Terebin]

    Stalin, using the name of Chief of the GRU, Fyodor Kuznetsov, tells Terebin, actually Soviet operative in Yan'an Andrei Orlov, to delay Mao's secret visit to Moscow.