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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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Sino-Soviet Relations

This is a catch-all collection for sources on Sino-Soviet relations. For more focused collections that deal with specific periods of the relationship during the Cold War, see (1) Making of the Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1945-1950; (2) Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1950-1959; (3) Sino-Soviet Split, 1960-1984; (4) Sino-Soviet Border Conflict, 1969; and (5) Sino-Soviet Rapprochement, 1985-1989. (Image, Soviet propaganda poster, "Friends Forever.")

  • October 02, 1959

    Discussion between N.S. Khrushchev and Mao Zedong

    Khrushchev and Mao discuss current political situations in Tibet, India, Indochina and Taiwan.

  • October 14, 1959

    From the Journal of Ambassador S.F. Antonov, Summary of a Conversation with the Chairman of the CC CPC Mao Zedong

    October 1959 conversation between Mao Zedong and the Soviet diplomat and sinologist S.F. Antonov, in which Mao attempted to reassure the Soviets that China would not provoke war with the United States or with its Asian neighbors. In his conversation with Antonov, Mao attempts to lessen the impact of China’s displeasure with Soviet policies. He tries hard to show his agreement with Moscow on every issue—the United States, Taiwan, India, Tibet, disarmament.

  • November 28, 1959

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in the Soviet Union, 'The Soviet Union’s Attitude towards the Sino-Indian Border Dispute'

    The Chinese Embassy in the Soviet Union commented that Moscow was trying to maintain a neutral stance in the conflict because it still had important stakes in India. The report predicted that this attitude would have negative consequences and encourage the Indian rightists.

  • December, 1959

    Mao Zedong, Outline for a Speech on the International Situation

    Draft of a speech by Mao Zedong, criticizing Khrushchev for his revisionism and for fearing Chinese Communism. Lists the occasions on which the Soviet Union has failed to support China, and extols the concept of continuous revolution.

  • December 08, 1959

    Memorandum of Conversation with the General Secretary of the CCP CC, Deng Xiaoping

    Memorandum of a conversation between V. S. Chervonenko and Deng Xiaoping. Chervonenko and Xiaoping discussed the progress of the socialist camp and emphasized friendship, unity and solidarity in their relations.

  • December 18, 1959

    Draft Report, 'On the Trip of the Soviet Party-Governmental Delegation to the PRC,' by M. Suslov to CC CPSU Presidium for Presentation to a Forthcoming CC CPSU Plenum (excerpt)

    Draft report by M. Suslov describing the visit of a Soviet delegation to the People’s Republic of China, mainly focusing on the deterioration of relations between India and China.

  • December 24, 1959

    Draft, Report to the CC CPSU Plenum, 'About the Visit of the Soviet Party-Governmental Delegation to the PRC'

    Soviet record of conversation between delegations from the Communist Parties of the Soviet Union and China. They argue over China's policy toward India and toward Taiwan, and assert that China is pursuing a path that will hurt its Communist allies and risk war. Also notes the extent of Mao's personality cult in China.

  • December 31, 1959

    Memorandum of Conversation with the Deputy Chairmen of the People’s Committee of the City of Shanghai, and the CPC City Committee Candidate, Liu Shuzhou, 16 December 1959

    Liu Shuzou, the CPC City Committee Candidate, describes the Shanghai delegation’s recent one-week educational visit to Leningrad. According to Liu, the delegation was received well by the Leningraders, and the Chinese were impressed by the city, Soviet culture, education, and a general improvement in standard of living

  • February 23, 1960

    Meeting Minutes between Zhang Weile and Soviet Deputy Director of the Far Eastern Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs R. Sh. Kudashev

    Kudashev explained why the USSR was lobbying for Nehru: His influence in Asia, the importance of Indian support in the upcoming East-West Summit Conference, the possibility of enlisting India as an ally. He also discussed treaties between China and Burma and Indonesia.

  • February 24, 1960

    Cable from the Xinhua Branch in New Delhi, 'The Sino-Indian Border Issue Mentioned in Nehru-Khrushchev Talks'

    The Xinhua Office in New Delhi reports that Nehru and Khrushchev broached the Sino-Indian border dispute in their recent talks.

  • February 24, 1960

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in India, 'Soviet Attaché in India Tells Us That Nehru Initiated Discussion of Border Issue in Nehru-Khrushchev Talks'

    The Chinese Embassy in India reports that it was Nehru who raised the Sino-Indian border dispute in discussions with Nikita Khrushchev.

  • March 01, 1960

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Indonesia, 'Memorandum of Conversation: Ambassador Huang Meets with Comrade Khrushchev'

    Huang Zhen and Nikita Khrushchev briefly discuss Sino-Soviet relations, Sino-Indian relations, and Soviet-Indonesian relations during a visit by Khrushchev to Jakarta.

  • March 06, 1960

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in India, 'Report on Khrushchev-Nehru Talks in Calcutta'

    The Soviet Cultural Attache reports on the Khrushchev-Nehru talks to a Xinhua reporter.

  • April 08, 1960

    Excerpt from the Political Report of the Soviet Embassy in China for 1959

    This excerpt from the USSR embassy in the PRC highlights the development and strengthening of the Chinese-Soviet friendship, cultural exchange, and exchange of knowledge and expertise in the year 1959. This was achieved with the help of the Society of Chinese Soviet Friendship and other active social organizations. The report concludes with goals for the upcoming year.

  • October 14, 1960

    Cable from the Chinese Foreign Ministry, 'Response on Our Attitude toward Khrushchev's Remarks at the 15th UNGA'

    The Chinese Foreign Ministry offers instructions for how embassies should respond to Nikita Khrushchev's speech at the 15th United Nations General Assembly.

  • May 12, 1961

    Notes on Soviet Political Work with China

    Covers a meeting that took place on May 12, 1961 involving the military attaches of various socialist countries, where Mao spoke about the China's political and ideological direction, perseverance through work and scarcity, and flexible military strategies, and lays out plan for fulfilling these goals

  • October 04, 1961

    Report from the Foreign Visitors Office of the Foreign Cultural Liaison Committee, 'The Two Major Parties of China and the Soviet Union Have Some Different Opinions, and Vietnam Faces Difficulties'

  • March 28, 1962

    From the Diary of S. V. Chervonenko, Transcripts of a Conversation with the General Secretary of the CC CCP Deng Xiaoping, March 1, 1962

    A conversation between S.V. Chevornenko and Deng Xiaoping about improving Sino-Soviet relations and questions about Albania and Germany.

  • May 08, 1962

    From the Diary of S. V. Chervonenko, Transcripts of a Conversation with the General Secretary of the CC CCP Deng Xiaoping, 9 April 1962

    Ambassador Chervonenko and Deng Xiaoping discuss a proposed conference of world communist leaders.

  • August 03, 1964

    Comrade Zhou Enlai, Comrade Peng Zhen Receive Tran Tu Binh, Vietnam’s Ambassador to China; Nesti Nase, Albania’s Ambassador to China; and Pak Se-chang, Korea’s Ambassador to China

    The meeting was among leaders from China, Vietnam, North Korea and Albania in 1964. They discussed Soviet-Romanian relations and plans to support Romania.