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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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Sino-Soviet Relations

This is a catch-all collection for sources on Sino-Soviet relations. For more focused collections that deal with specific periods of the relationship during the Cold War, see (1) Making of the Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1945-1950; (2) Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1950-1959; (3) Sino-Soviet Split, 1960-1984; (4) Sino-Soviet Border Conflict, 1969; and (5) Sino-Soviet Rapprochement, 1985-1989. (Image, Soviet propaganda poster, "Friends Forever.")

  • January 30, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Mao discusses the military situation in China, which he states is heavily in the favor of the CCP. Mao discusses the plans for finishing off the Guomindang forces, which are to be delayed a couple months. Mao discusses China's standing compared to Russia's. Mao discusses his own standing among the Soviet leaders.

  • January 31, 1949

    Notes by Anastas Mikoyan ahead of Meetings with Mao Zedong

    Notes taken by Minister of Foreign Trade Anastas Mikoyan during a meeting with Mao Zedong in Beijing. They discuss relations with the United States and other Western powers and the nationalization of foreign-owned factories in China. Mikoyan also gave advice on developing the new Communist government in China. Noteably, Mikoyan wrote that "the path of the regime of the people’s democracies, or the path of the Russian Soviet revolution, is not quite appropriate for China. China has its own path of development."

  • January 31, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Mao discusses the formation of a coalition government and when best to form the government. Mao discusses his strategies against Bai Chongxi and the strength of the CCP forces. Mao also discusses the representative office of the VKP(b) CC with the CCP CC, running the military districts, Guomindang naval forces, the conditions of workers, the cadres, professional unions, working youth and women, talks with the Guomindang government, foreign trade, and the foreign policy of the CCP.

  • March, 1949

    List of Products Brought Back

    Anastas Mikoyan's list of products he brought back to the Soviet Union following his trip to Xibaipo, China, in January-February 1949.

  • February, 1949

    Cable, Joseph Stalin to Anastas Mikoyan

    Cable from Stalin to Mikoyan giving answers to questions raised by Mao Zedong. Stalin advises not to rush in creating a government in China before comprehensively "clearing the liberated area from hostile elements." Stalin explains that the USSR sent an agent to Canton for intelligence-gathering, and says that the Americans and English are sending ambassadors to CCP areas to function as spies.

  • February 01, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Zhou Enlai

    Anastas and Zhou Enlai discuss Muslims in China, Chinese policy in inner Mongolia, the Guomindang navy, Guomindang forces, characteristics of Guomindang leaders, PLA arms, PLA military requests, PLA intelligence, and the organization of the war ministry. (Evening)

  • February 01, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Zhou Enlai

    Anastas Mikoyan and Zhou Enlai discuss Chinese Communist Party contacts with the US, recognition of the coalition government, and the Chinese attitude toward foreign property.

  • February 03, 1949

    Cable, Joseph Stalin to Anastas Mikoyan

    Stalin cable to Mikoyan, asking Mikoyan to bring Mao's attention to the issue of Nanjing'ists taking China's state-owned gold south from evacuated cities and areas in China. Stalin recommends that Mao make the return of this gold a condition for holding talks with the Nanjing'ists.

  • February 03, 1949

    Cable, Joseph Stalin to Anastas Mikoyan

    Cable from Stalin to Mikoyan, sent with the intent to be passed on to Mao Zedong. Stalin expresses pleasure with the Chinese control of China's peasantry and students, but expresses disappointment that the CCP does not control the majority of the working class. Stalin advises that China turn its big cities into bases for communism, and then gives more specific advice for gaining a majority among the working class. Stalin then responds to Mao's request for weapons, explaining that the USSR doesn't have anti-tank and anti-aircraft weapons of foreign make, but can send Russian-made weapons.

  • February 03, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong converse about the mediation talks between the CCP and the Guomindang, Yugoslavia, coordination between the communist parties of the Asian countries, and the history of the CCP.

  • February 04, 1949

    Cable, Anastas Mikoyan to Joseph Stalin

    Cable from Mikoyan to Stalin, saying that Mao and the members of the Chinese Politburo were pleased with the content of previous telegrams sent by Stalin.

  • February 04, 1949

    Cable, Joseph Stalin to Anastas Mikoyan

    Stalin cable to Mikoyan, responding to Mikoyan's report that an American named Rittenberg is stationed with the Chinese Communist party as a spy. Stalin recommends an arrest of Rittenberg immediately, so as "to expsoe the network of American agents" operating in China. Stalin then notes that another American, writer Anna-Louise Strong, is also an American spy.

  • February 04, 1949

    Cable, Joseph Stalin to Anastas Mikoyan

    Stalin cable to Mikoyan, asking Mikoyan to recount a four-point cable sent earlier to Mao Zedong. Stalin has not heard an answer, and demands an immediate one.

  • February 04, 1949

    Cable, Anastas Mikoyan to Joseph Stalin

    Cable sent from Mikoyan to Stalin, summarizing a discussion between Mikoyan and Mao. In that conversation, Mikoyan tells Mao that once the USSR opposed foreign mediation between the Guomindang and CCP, England, America and France changed their positions from supporting mediation to refuting mediation. Mikoyan then draws to Stalin's attention that Zhou Enlai noticed permanent representatives of Americans, including "spies, and journalists," among the Chinese Communist Party.

  • February 04, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong discuss the independence of Mongolia, the independence movement in Xinjiang, the construction of a railroad in Xinjiang, CCP contacts with the VKP(b), the candidate for Chinese ambassador to the USSR, aid from the USSR to China, CCP negotiations with the Guomindang, the preparatory commisssion for convening the PCM, the character of future rule in China, Chinese treaties with foreign powers, and the Sino-Soviet treaty.

  • February 05, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong discuss the situation within the CCP, the workers' question, the military situation an the CCP's tasks, and Rittenberg and Ma Haide. (Evening)

  • February 05, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong discuss the role of foreign capital in China, Chinese intelligentsia, the role of criticism and self-criticism in the CCP, CCP tasks in the army, the level of China's industrial development, the Chinese attitude toward foreign property, and the road and character of the Chinese revolution. (Day)

  • February 06, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong discuss Outer Mongolia, the Sino-Soviet treaty, the situation of the national minorities in China, the economic policy of the CCP, the structure of state power, the head of the Chinese government, the "new situation" and the cadres, the Soviet loan to China, the CCP CC plans for February-March, and the youth movement.

  • April 13, 1949

    Cable, Kovalev to Filippov [Stalin]

    Kovalev reports to Filippov (Stalin) about the conversation Kovalev had with Mao, Zhu De, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi, and several members of the CCP Politburo. The topics discussed include an appraisal of the work and decisions of the second plenum of the CCP CC, the Soviet loan to China, the military situation in China, the city of Shanghai, and the peace talks between the CCP and Guomindang representatives.

  • April 19, 1949

    Cable, Filippov [Stalin] to Mao [via Kovalev]

    Filippov (Stalin) gives his advice on whether or not China should refuse relations, loans, and trade with capitalist states. Stalin also discusses the Soviet loan to China. Kovalev is to relay this to Mao.