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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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Sino-Soviet Relations

This is a collection of primary source documents that discuss the Soviet-Chinese relationship during the Cold War. Composed largely of cables, memos, and telegrams, this collection spans the 1930s through 1959, or the period prior to the split. See also The Sino-Soviet Split, 1960-1984. (Image, Soviet propaganda poster, "Friends Forever.")

  • January 31, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Mao discusses the formation of a coalition government and when best to form the government. Mao discusses his strategies against Bai Chongxi and the strength of the CCP forces. Mao also discusses the representative office of the VKP(b) CC with the CCP CC, running the military districts, Guomindang naval forces, the conditions of workers, the cadres, professional unions, working youth and women, talks with the Guomindang government, foreign trade, and the foreign policy of the CCP.

  • February 01, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Zhou Enlai

    Anastas and Zhou Enlai discuss Muslims in China, Chinese policy in inner Mongolia, the Guomindang navy, Guomindang forces, characteristics of Guomindang leaders, PLA arms, PLA military requests, PLA intelligence, and the organization of the war ministry. (Evening)

  • February 01, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Zhou Enlai

    Anastas Mikoyan and Zhou Enlai discuss Chinese Communist Party contacts with the US, recognition of the coalition government, and the Chinese attitude toward foreign property.

  • February 03, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong converse about the mediation talks between the CCP and the Guomindang, Yugoslavia, coordination between the communist parties of the Asian countries, and the history of the CCP.

  • February 04, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong discuss the independence of Mongolia, the independence movement in Xinjiang, the construction of a railroad in Xinjiang, CCP contacts with the VKP(b), the candidate for Chinese ambassador to the USSR, aid from the USSR to China, CCP negotiations with the Guomindang, the preparatory commisssion for convening the PCM, the character of future rule in China, Chinese treaties with foreign powers, and the Sino-Soviet treaty.

  • February 05, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong discuss the situation within the CCP, the workers' question, the military situation an the CCP's tasks, and Rittenberg and Ma Haide. (Evening)

  • February 05, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong discuss the role of foreign capital in China, Chinese intelligentsia, the role of criticism and self-criticism in the CCP, CCP tasks in the army, the level of China's industrial development, the Chinese attitude toward foreign property, and the road and character of the Chinese revolution. (Day)

  • February 06, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong discuss Outer Mongolia, the Sino-Soviet treaty, the situation of the national minorities in China, the economic policy of the CCP, the structure of state power, the head of the Chinese government, the "new situation" and the cadres, the Soviet loan to China, the CCP CC plans for February-March, and the youth movement.

  • April 13, 1949

    Cable, Kovalev to Filippov [Stalin]

    Kovalev reports to Filippov (Stalin) about the conversation Kovalev had with Mao, Zhu De, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi, and several members of the CCP Politburo. The topics discussed include an appraisal of the work and decisions of the second plenum of the CCP CC, the Soviet loan to China, the military situation in China, the city of Shanghai, and the peace talks between the CCP and Guomindang representatives.

  • April 19, 1949

    Cable, Filippov [Stalin] to Mao [via Kovalev]

    Filippov (Stalin) gives his advice on whether or not China should refuse relations, loans, and trade with capitalist states. Stalin also discusses the Soviet loan to China. Kovalev is to relay this to Mao.

  • April 26, 1949

    Cable, Stalin to Kovalev

    Stalin gives advice to Mao (via Kovalev) on how to treat the Chinese bourgeoisie.

  • May 17, 1949

    Cable, Kovalev to Stalin, Conversation with Mao Zedong on 12 May 1949

    Kovalev relays to Stalin a conversation with Mao concerning the military situation in China, the choice for leader of the central government, and Wang Ming's appraisal of his incorrect activity.

  • May 23, 1949

    Cable, Kovalev to Stalin, Report on the 22 May 1949 CCP CC Politburo Discussion

    Kovalev reports to Stalin on the politburo meeting. the discussion concerned the economic situation in China, the military situation in China, and a previous conversation between Mao and American ambassador John Leighton Stuart.

  • May 26, 1949

    Cable, Stalin to Mao Zedong [via Kovalev]

    Stalin gives to Mao (via Kovalev) his, Stalin's, stance on the economic situation in China, and how the Chinese are handling it (the creation of an administrative economic center in China). Stalin also discusses Sino-Soviet relations, and the state of the PLA and how best to use PLA forces.

  • June 14, 1949

    Cable, Mao Zedong [via Kovalev] to Stalin

    Mao (via Kovalev) responds to Stalin's earlier cable and asks advice on several questions, including: the creation of a government in China, military tactics, the supplying of troops, the state of the civil war, and how to show the friendship between the USSR and China to other countries.

  • June 18, 1949

    Cable, Filippov [Stalin] to Mao Zedong [via Kovalev]

    Stalin discusses the creation of a government in China, Chinese military plans, and the acquisition of oil in China.

  • June 27, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Stalin and CCP Delegation

    Stalin and the CCP delegation discuss the Soviet loan to China, the specialist the Soviets are to send to China, the occupation of Xinjiang, and the Chinese fleet.

  • July 06, 1949

    Report, Kovalev to Stalin

    Kovalev relays several requests made by Liu Shaoqi, Gao Gang, and Wang Jiaxiang. The requests include advice on running a communist government, that Soviet professors be sent to China, advice on how to manage Manchuria, and if China could receive a Czechoslovak trade delegation.

  • July 18, 1949

    Cable, Liu Shaoqi to Mao Zedong

    A committee to write up a preliminary draft for a loan from the USSR to China is created. Stalin meets with a delegation of the CCP and answers several of their questions, including: the CCP's policy towards the Chinese national bourgeoisie, the matter of people's democratic dictatorship, Chinese foreign policy issues, Sino-Soviet relations, Xinjiang, Dalian, a Chinese University in Moscow, a railway from outer Mongolia to Zhangjiakou, and a naval school. Stalin and the CCP delegation also discussed the possibility of a war breaking out between the USSR and the US.

  • July 27, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Liu Shaoqi and Stalin

    Liu Shaoqi and Stalin (among others) discuss the state of the Chinese civil war