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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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Sino-Soviet Split, 1960-1984

Documents on the growing division and worsening relations between China and the Soviet Union from 1960 onward. For other collections on Sino-Soviet relations, see Making of the Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1945-1950; Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1950-1959; Sino-Soviet Border Conflict, 1969; and Sino-Soviet Rapprochement, 1985-1989. (Image, Mao and Khrushchev, 1958)

  • April 15, 1977

    Informational Note on the Meeting of the Representatives of International Departments of Six Fraternal Parties

    The CPSU, PUWP, SED, CPCz, HWSP, and BCP met to discuss an upcoming conference devoted to the discussion of the “Problems of Peace and Socialism.” China was another focus of the meeting, particularly the implications of the expansion of its industrial-military complex.

  • June, 1977

    East German Report on the Ninth Interkit Meeting in Berlin, June 1977

    This report was issued after the ninth Interkit meeting in East Berlin, which featured an official Cuban delegation. The document addresses the Chinese question after the death of Mao Zedong. According to this report, the internal disputes inside the Chinese Communist Party persist under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping. The economic problems that China faces are still unresolved. In its foreign relations, China is staying the course by maintaining relations with Western countries, especially with the US. These relations are considered to be detrimental to international détente and directed against the interests of the Soviet Union and the Socialist countries.

  • June, 1977

    East German Report, 'China after Mao Zedong'

    This study gives an account on the domestic and foreign policies of China after the death of Mao Zedong. The first part of the document is dedicated to the domestic policies of the Chinese government. It analyzes the ideological backgrounds of the new leadership as well as the economic situation, while emphasizing unsolved problems in industry and agriculture. A closer look at Beijing's defense spending leads the authors to the conclusion that China is enhancing its military potential and preparing for war.

  • June 21, 1977

    Note About a Meeting between Comrade Hermann Axen, Member of the Politburo and Secretary of the SED CC, and Comrade O. B. Rakhmanin, Candidate of the CPSU CC and First Deputy Head of the International Department of CC, on 17 June 1977

    An excerpt of speeches given to the meeting participants. A major theme is "how to win back China."

  • July 14, 1977

    Bulgarian Communist Party Politburo Decision on Information about China after Mao

    This decision of the Politburo of the Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP) refers to specific measures to be undertaken by Bulgaria's ideological and propagandistic organs in publicly condemning Maoism as an ideology contrary to the theory and practice of Socialism and Marxism-Leninism. Among these measures are the commissioning of publications, media reports, and lectures at institutions of higher education in order to excoriate Chinese foreign policy for its attacks on the Soviet Union and the other European Socialist countries.

  • September 23, 1977

    Notes on Meetings held in the Great Hall of the People in Peking, on 3 and 4 August 1977 at 3 PM

    Huang Hua, commenting on a number of developments around the world, suggests that China's foreign policy continues to emulate the thinking and concerns of Mao Zedong.

  • March 06, 1978

    Informational Note from the Eight Parties’ Meeting in Budapest

    This document presents "information and views on the current problems in the international and workers’ movement, the China question and anti-communist offensive struggle against imperialism."

  • June 18, 1978

    Record of Conversation, Soviet Ambassador A.M. Puzanov and Taraki

    Record of Conversation, Soviet Ambassador A.M. Puzanov and Taraki on possible disunity within the Afghan Communist Party, rebutted by Taraki claiming that the party is unified

  • June 27, 1978

    Exposition of the Conversations with Cde. V. I. Potapov, Chief of the Romanian Sector of the CPSU CC

    Briefing given by V. I. Potapov on the dispute between the USSR and the SSR regarding the historical treatment of Soviet-Romanian relations. The SSR was accused of pursuing an independent foreign policy and offering a bad example for other socialist countries. Some issues examined were: the Romanian position in the Belgrade Negotiations, the RCP attitude towards “Eurocommunism," the Romanian position towards Africa, the Middle East and China and the Moldavian question.

  • September, 1978

    Note from the Conversation with the Politburo Member of the CC CPS, Minster of Foreign Affairs of the USSR, Comrade Andrei Gromyko

    A short excerpt from a discussion about China

  • October 27, 1978

    Conspect of Conversations with V. I. Potapov, Chief of Romanian Sector of CPSU CC Section

    V.I Potapov informs about a visit to Bucharest of the CPSU delegation led by A. A. Gromyko and the discussions regarding the “Bessarabian question,” criticism of the CPSU regarding RSR’s relations with the USA and NATO and independent relations with China, RSR’s distancing from the Soviet Union and the other socialist countries in terms of foreign policy.

  • December, 1978

    East German Report on the Tenth Interkit Meeting in Havana, December 1978

    This report, issued after the tenth Interkit meeting in Havana, addresses China's domestic and foreign policies. China is said to be obstructing the process of international détente by developing relations with NATO and West Germany. The report condemns the Chinese interference in Romanian, Yugoslavian and Korean politics. The authors believe that China is trying to divide the Socialist countries into two opposing groups. The newly intensified Chinese-US relations are criticized, as is China's policy of allowing more Western influence to shape its domestic policies and economic strategies.

  • February 09, 1979

    Mongolian Record of Conversation with Soviet Officials in Moscow, February 1979

    Discusses the cancellation of the alliance treaty between China and the Soviet Union, and the impact this will have on the Mongolian People’s Republic. They are urged not to hurry the cancellation of the treaty, however, because China has not yet explicitly asked for it. They also note that there are anti-Soviet propaganda items being spread in Korea, and the growing role the U.S. is playing in Chinese affairs.

  • April 12, 1979

    Mongolian Memorandum of Conversation with O.B. Rakhmanin

    Rakhmanin reports on the status of the Sino-Soviet treaty, which he says hinges on the Sino-Vietnamese situation, which he tries to explain in terms of territory and aid to the Vietnamese.

  • April 30, 1979

    Notes on a Meeting in the Great People's Palace in Peking on 30 April 1979 at 9 A.M

    Huang Hua says that "the Vietnamese were the Cubans of Asia but rather more dangerous." In addition to commenting on the situation in Indochina, Huang weighs in on Soviet and Cuban policies toward the Third World, events in the Middle East, and China's involvement in the United Nations.

  • July 28, 1979

    Transcript, Meeting of East German leader Erich Honecker and Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev, Crimea, 27 July 1979 (excerpt)

    Brezhnev reports to Honecker on international affairs.

  • October 04, 1979

    Transcript of Brezhnev Honecker summit in East Berlin (excerpt on Iran and Afghanistan)

    Transcript of Brezhnev Honecker summit in East Berlin (excerpt on Iran and Afghanistan) with Brezhnev discussing the leadership of Amin and expressing continued Soviet support for Afghanistan

  • October 18, 1979

    Transcript of CPSU CC Politburo Meeting (excerpt), 18 October 1979

    [Excerpt] Transcript of CPSU CC Politburo Meeting regarding telegrams from Cuba regarding the attitudes of SWAPO men and Angolans towards the Cubans and fighting. The Politburo members also discussed Sino-Soviet relations, Cuban sugar sales, and Soviet cooperation with Spain.

  • December, 1979

    Note regarding the Visit of the CC PUWP Inter-Departmental Study Group in China

    Discusses a recent visit in China by the CC PUWP noting that their ”fundamental opinions” about China were correct, and that there needs to be more active propaganda and further studies in China, such as those undertaken by Poland.

  • 1980

    CC CPSU Information on Chinese Foreign Policy Issues

    Discusses the joint efforts by Chinese and American leaders to promote a better relationship between these two countries, at the expense of the Soviet Union and of communism. The U.S. seems to be trying to capitalize on a growing “internal stability” in China, and the U.S. is even now selling equipment to China. The Soviet Union does not believe that this alliance will prove powerful enough to significantly impair other Socialist countries, but their alliance should also not be ignored.