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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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Sino-Soviet Split, 1960-1984

Documents on the growing division and worsening relations between China and the Soviet Union from 1960 onward. See also Sino-Soviet Relations. (Image, Mao and Khrushchev, 1958)

  • January 15, 1963

    Record of Conversation between Soviet Ambassador to China Stepan V. Chervonenko and the Mongolian Ambassador to China Dondogiin Tsevegmid

    An account of conversation between the head Mongolian delegate to China, Tsedenbal, and Chinese Premier, Enlai, which was relayed by Mongolian ambassador, Tsevegmid, to USSR ambassador, Chervonenko. Tsedenbal and Enlai discuss China's sending workers to Mongolia, and the sending of goods from Mongolia to China. Additionally, the two argue about which country is following the proper ideological line, and about what propaganda materials are being printed in Mongolia.

  • February 01, 1963

    Memorandum of Conversation between the Delegates from the Society for Soviet-Chinese Friendship (OKSD), Li Xigeng and Li Zhanwu, with the Society's General Secretariat, 18 November 1962

    A Soviet delegation visiting China meets with local representatives of the Society for Soviet-Chinese Friendship (OKSD) and the two groups have a tense conversation about the Soviet handling of the recent Cuban Missile Crisis.

  • March 11, 1963

    Secret Telegram from Maneli (Hanoi) to Spasowski-Morski (Warsaw) [Ciphergram No. 3175]

    Cable from Polish Ambassador in Hanoi Maneli to Warsaw, describing a conversation he had with Vietnamese Prime Minister Pham Van Dong and Soviet Ambassador Tovmassian. They discuss the idea of neutralization in Vietnam, and the possibility of the United States pulling forces out. Tovmassian adds that the PRC pressured the DRV to start incidents in the demilitarized zone.

  • March 12, 1963

    Hungarian Embassy in Havana (Beck), Report on Conversation with Cuban Foreign Ministry Official on Hungarian-Cuban Relations and Sino-Soviet Split

    Hungarian Ambassador to Cuba János Beck reports on a conversation between Hungarian functionaries Görög and Sütő and Cuban Ambassador to Hungary José Fuxa. Their discussion revolves around Cuban-Hungarian and Sino-Soviet relations.

  • April, 1963

    Report from the Chinese Foreign Ministry, 'The Soviet Union’s Stance on the Sino-Indian Boundary Question and Soviet-Indian Relations'

    An extensive report from the Chinese Foreign Ministry on the Soviet Union's policies vis-a-vis the Sino-Indian Border War.

  • April 03, 1963

    Memorandum of Conversation between Yuri Andropov and the Central Committee of the Romanian Worker’s Party

    Soviet politburo member Yuri Andropov and Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej discuss issues concerning the cooperation between the CPSU and the Romanian Worker's party and the two governments. The discussion ranges between economic integration issues, to the Sino-Soviet split, Soviet-Albanian relations, and politico-military cooperation between Warsaw Pact states.

  • April 04, 1963

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Germany, 'The Opinion of the Former First-Secretary of the German Embassy in China on Sino-German Differences'

    Chinese and German diplomats discuss East German policies toward the Sino-Soviet split, criticisms of Stalin, and the situation in Yugoslavia.

  • April 27, 1963

    Cable from the Foreign Ministry, 'Questions regarding the German Diplomat wanting to Establish Friendly Relations with China'

    The Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs reports that East Germany, which "has served as Khrushchev’s anti-Chinese vanguard," is interested in improving relations with Beijing.

  • May 31, 1963

    Secret Telegram from Maneli (Saigon) to Spasowski (Warsaw) [Ciphergram No. 7353]

    Report from Polish official in Saigon, Maneli, to Warsaw, on his meeting with Pham Van Dong. Dong describes plans for South Vietnam's future government and neutrality, along with North Vietnam's compliance with the Geneva Accords. Reports that Soviet Ambassador Tovmassian was surprised at the high degree of Chinese participation in Vietnam.

  • July 04, 1963

    Transcript of Meeting of the Political Bureau of the CC of Romanian Worker’s Party

    The conversation focuses on whether or not to publish declarations made by the Chinese Communist Party and those made by the CPSU. The Romanians are concerned how the people will react to tension between the two communist countries.

  • July 08, 1963

    Meeting of the Delegations of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Chinese Communist Party, Moscow, 5-20 July 1963

  • July 23, 1963

    Analysis by the Czechoslovak Foreign Ministry of Chinese-Albanian and Chinese-Yugoslav Relations

    This document reviews relations between China and Albania during the 1960s, focusing on political and economic cooperation between the two allies. The author also discusses the relationship between China and Yugoslavia in the 1950s and 1960s. The document shows that Sino-Yugoslav relations have deteriorated due to Chinese criticism of the Albanian brand of Socialism.

  • August 01, 1963

    Cable from the Chinese Foreign Ministry, 'Our Efforts Against the Subversive Activities of the Soviet Union in Xinjiang'

  • August 14, 1963

    Information by the Czechoslovak Foreign Ministry on the Soviet-Chinese Discussions in Moscow

    This document examines Sino-Soviet relations with a focus on a 1963 discussion forum in Moscow. The analysis reveals an ideological and political divide between the two countries. Attached is a document outlining Chinese positions on questions of Socialism and peace and on Soviet-Sino relations.

  • September 05, 1963

    Zhou Enlai’s Discussion with a Kenyan African National Federation Delegation (Excerpt)

    Zhou Enlai criticizes the Three-Nation Treaty (Limited Test Ban Treaty) of 1963, arguing that it signifies an attempt by the US, UK, and USSR to monopolize nuclear weapons. Enlai warns that the agreement will allow larger nuclear countries to commit “nuclear blackmail” against smaller, non-nuclear countries.

  • September 24, 1963

    Report on Visit of the Society of Chinese-Soviet Friendship to the Soviet Union, T. Skvortsov-Tokarin

    Report on a tour group of Chinese citizens from the Society of Chinese-Soviet Friendship. The group visited Moscow, Tbilisi, Sochi, Kiev, Riga, and Leningrad. The Soviet guides were frustrated by the groups' argumentative behavior and attempts to speak directly to Soviet workers. The group was especially interested in finding out if Soviet listeners heard broadcasts of Radio Beijing.

  • November 12, 1963

    Memorandum of Conversation, Chinese Officials and the Hungarian Ambassador to China

    Martin, the Hungarian ambassador to China, is involved with several conversations with Chinese officials before returning to Hungary, and the three highlighted conversations are with Zhu De, Chen Yi, and Zhou Enlai. Among other international issues, Zhu De discusses imperial attempts to restore capitalism in socialist countries and references “revisionism” in Hungary, to which Martin responds defensively. Chen Yi discusses Chinese industrial and economic development. Zhou Enlai discusses recent Chinese struggles, and interprets Martin’s reaction as distrust.

  • November 22, 1963

    Cable from the Foreign Ministry, 'Indicating the Spirit of Ambassadors’ Talks with the Romanian Side'

    The Chinese Foreign Ministry lays out China's policies toward Romania in the context of the Sino-Soviet split.

  • November 27, 1963

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Germany, 'Brief of a Conversation with the Polish Ambassador'

    Feliks Baranowski and Wang Guoquan discuss the Sino-Soviet split and China's relations with Poland.

  • November 29, 1963

    Cable from the Department of Consular Affairs, Chinese Foreign Ministry, 'On Anti-Revisionist Propaganda'