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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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United States-Soviet Relations

 Documents on the often adversarial relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. The majority of the documents are reports, telegrams, and memorandums that come from Russian archives. Many topics are covered, including the "German Question," the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Ethiopian Civil War, Jimmy Carter's presidency, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. (Image, Reagan Gorbachev on Governor's Island, 1988, Reagan Presidential Library, C50846-27)

  • January 20, 1961

    John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address

    Kennedy's inaugural address, in which he discusses US foreign policy and relations with the rest of the world, especially the Eastern Bloc.

  • June 20, 1962

    List of Troops and Commanders to take part in Operation "Anadyr"

    A description of the staff and crew of the Soviet Operation "Anadyr."

  • October 04, 1962

    Telegram from Soviet Ambassador to the USA Anatoly F. Dobrynin to the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    Dobrynin sends the results of a meeting between Rusk, himself and the Foreign Ministers of Latin American countries where they discussed questions of security, trade, and the question of the Cuban government in exile.

  • October 18, 1962

    Telegram from Soviet Ambassador to the USA Dobrynin to the USSR MFA

    Dobrynin sends statements issued by Kennedy, Rusk, Taylor and Martin in a closed briefing for American media where they discussed the gravity of the Cuban issue.

  • October 18, 1962

    From the cable on the conversation between Gromyko and Kennedy

    Gromyko reported on his meeting with Kennedy. The Soviet representative argued that Cuba was never a threat to the US and Washington should end its hostile activities against Havana. He also warned Kennedy of the possibility of nuclear war in the event of an invasion of Cuba. Gromyko reiterated the Moscow's intention of supporting Cuba only in economic and defensive issues. Kennedy, however, pointed out that it was difficult to explain the surge in Soviet military aid to Cuba. The US president reaffirmed that Washington did not have any plan to invade Cuba, at least after Bay of Pigs and Operation Mongoose. The US was only preventing actions that could have led to war. Gromyko reemphasized the peaceful rivalry of the two ideological systems and proposed a meeting between the two leaders.

  • October 22, 1962

    Telegram from Soviet Ambassador to the USA Dobrynin to the USSR MFA

    Dobrynin sends the results of a meeting where Rusk invites him to his home and asks him to deliver a message to Khrushchev and text of JFK’s message to be transmitted over TASS.

  • October 23, 1962

    Telegram from Soviet Ambassador to Cuba A.I. Alekseev to USSR Foreign Ministry

    Alekseev transmits that Cuba’s army has mobilized and the subsequent affect on Cuba’s economy because of Kennedy’s recent speech. Cuba waits for the Soviet Union’s opinion on the recent events.

  • October 23, 1962

    Telegram from Soviet delegate to the UN Zorin to USSR Foreign Ministry

    Zorin relays the decision to veto the US draft resolution to the UN. Zorin argues that US aggressions against Cuba can merely be regarded as a provocation pushing the world to the verge of nuclear war. He says the Soviet government would introduce a draft resolution that includes a condemnation of the US aggressions, the immediate cessation of the US blockade and infractions of maritime freedom, and an immediate end to intervention in the domestic affairs of Cuba. It would also propose US government to negotiate with Cuba directly.

  • October 23, 1962

    Telegram from Soviet delegate to the United Nations V. A. Zorin to USSR Foreign Ministry

    Zorin relays the events of the UN Security Council meeting, transmitting the speeches made by the US and Cuban delegates. US delegate Stevenson tried to justify US actions against Cuba and proposed the American draft resolution. Cuban delegate Inchaustegui demanded the immediate recall of the US measures. Zorin says although some Africa and Asian countries realized the illegality of US actions, however, they were not determined to take any concrete steps. Zorin also sends the proposed draft of a new resolution.

  • October 23, 1962

    Telegram from Soviet Ambassador to the USA Dobrynin to the USSR MFA

    Dobrynin sends a report on the general mood of Washington DC, by way of media and observation, regarding Kennedy’s establishment of a quarantine around Cuba.

  • October 24, 1962

    Telegram from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR, to USSR envoys and the USSR delegate to the UN.

    The Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs ordered its ambassadors to visit the local ministers of foreign affairs and inform them of the declaration of the USSR on the situation in Cuba and its decision to bring the American violation of the UN charter before the UN.

  • October 24, 1962

    Telegram from the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs to V. V. Kuznetsov on a message from U Thant

    The Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs relayed a message from U Thant: The delegates of a large number of countries urged the involved parties to restrain from any actions that can exacerbate the situation. They also called for a voluntary suspension of quarantines for the inspection of ships bound for Cuba.

  • October 24, 1962

    Soviet Report on the Situation in the US Following Kennedy's Announcement

    Report on the situation in the US following Kennedy's announcement, including how the crisis is being presented in news media, increased security measures, the mood in New York City and protests occurring in response.

  • October 24, 1962

    Letter from Khrushchev to John F. Kennedy

    Khrushchev expresses outrage at Kennedy’s establishment of quarantine in Cuba.

  • October 24, 1962

    Telegram from Soviet Ambassador to the USA Dobrynin to the USSR MFA

    Dobrynin relays the results of a meeting with R. Kennedy during which R. Kennedy is outraged at the “deception” of the Soviet Union by putting long-range missiles in Cuba.

  • October 25, 1962

    Cable from Soviet ambassador to the US Dobrynin to USSR Foreign Ministry (1)

    Dobrynin relays that Russian journalist overheard information about a possible US invasion of Cuba at the press club in Washington.

  • October 25, 1962

    Telegram from Soviet Ambassador to Cuba Alekseev to USSR Foreign Ministry

    Alekseev comments on the general attitude of the Cuban people in regards to the blockade and mobilization of the Cuban army

  • October 25, 1962

    Telegram from Soviet delegate to the United Nations V. A. Zorin to USSR Foreign Ministry

    Preparation for an upcoming meeting with acting UN Secretary U Thant, a meeting with the Soviet Union that will take place between U Thant’s meetings with the US and Cuba. Zorin says they will transmit Khrushchev’s message during the meeting that the Soviet agrees with U Thant’s proposal of holding a negotiation for a peaceful settlement in the Caribbean region. He also says the Soviet should expect the US would not agree to the suspension of “quarantine” activity only after the removal of “offensive weaponry” from Cuba. Soviet, however, would insist the negotiation to be based on U Thant’s proposal of suspending arms stockpiling in Cuba, which is supported by neutral countries.

  • October 25, 1962

    Telegram from the Soviet representative to the United Nations, Valerian Zorin, to the USSR MFA

    Zorin reports on a meeting of the UN Security Council.

  • October 25, 1962

    Telegram from Soviet delegate to the United Nations V. A. Zorin to USSR Foreign Ministry on UN Security Council Meeting of 24 October 1962

    Zorin transmits the events of the 24 October meeting relaying the speeches of British, French, Romanian, Chilean, Ghanaian, etc delegates. Zorin argues that delegates from Venezuela and Chile supported the American draft resolution under the US pressure. The United Arab Republic and Ghana stressed the US actions against Cuba violated the principle of maritime freedom and posed a threat to security. UN Acting Secretary-General U Thant proposed the interested parties meet and discuss the situation within several weeks. Zorin also relays that a number of neutral Afro-Asian countries are working on a new draft resolution.