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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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Warsaw Pact

Documents on the Eastern Bloc military and security organization dominated by the Soviet Union.Also known as the Warsaw Treaty Organization, or the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance. The documents span 1955 to 1988, and most come from archives in Russia, Bulgaria, Romania, and Poland. Most discuss troop movements amongst the Warsaw Pact states. Topics discussed include military exercises, cooperatives agreements, Romania and Czech military formations, and relations with the United States. See also the 1956 Polish and Hungarian Crisis, the 1980-81 Polish Crisis, the Soviet Invasion of Czechoslovakia, and Warsaw Pact Military Planning. (Image, Warsaw Pact leaders, 1987, Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-1987-0529-029)

  • October 14, 1963

    Discussion between Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister Vasilii Kuznetsov and the SED Politburo (Fragment)

    Excerpts of the meeting between Marshal V.V. Kuznetzov, Commander of the Warsaw Pact Forces, and the GDR politburo on issues of nuclear proliferation in Europe and Warsaw Pact planning.

  • October 11, 1964

    Plan of Action of the Czechoslovak People’s Army for War Period

    A detailed strategic miltiary plan the Czechoslovak People’s Army for war period.

  • January 18, 1965

    Memorandum of Discussions between Romanian Worker’s Party leadership and Polish United Worker’s Party leadership

    The talks focus on several issues: namely the Multinational Nuclear Forces, Warsaw Pact relations with Albania, and the People's Republic of China. Gomulka and Dej also discuss the idea of convening a conference of Communist and Worker’s parties.

  • January 19, 1965

    T. Zhivkov’s Handwritten Notes on NATO at the Warsaw Pact Meeting in Moscow

  • January 20, 1965

    Minutes of the Meeting of the Political Consultative Committee of the Warsaw Pact Member States, Warsaw

    (Excerpts) Minutes of discussions of the Warsaw Pact Political Consultative Committee concerning non-proliferation. The Romanian delegation argues against a joint declaration of the Warsaw Pact on non-proliferation for fear that it might be used against China. The other delegations argue that a joint declaration is necessary in order to prevent the creation of the Multilaterall Nuclear Force proposed by NATO.

  • January 20, 1965

    Minutes of the Meeting of the Political Consultative Committee of the Warsaw Pact Member States, Warsaw

    Romanian meeting minutes of Warsaw Pact Political Consultative Committee meeting concerning non-proliferation.

  • January 21, 1966

    Memorandum by Polish Minister Adam Rapacki

    In response to Brezhnev's request for input, Rapacki outlines proposals to improve the Warsaw Treaty in both military organization and operation, and political affairs, including reform of the Political Consultative Committee.

  • January 26, 1966

    Memorandum by the Polish Ministry of National Defense

    Polish and Soviet proposals for structural, organizational, and budgetary adjustments to the military articles of the Warsaw Treaty are reported and analyzed.

  • February 04, 1966

    Report on the meeting of the Chiefs of the General Staff of the Armies of the Warsaw Pact

    The meeting focused on the need to create a more unified command structure and general staff for the Warsaw Pact. A draft protocol was produced, which the delegates signed.

  • March 14, 1966

    Letter on a Request from Jaruzelski for a Bilateral Meeting about the Status of the Warsaw Pact

    A letter from R. Malinkovskii and A. Grechko requesting permission to deny Jaruzelski's request from a previous letter for a bilateral meeting to discuss the status of the Warsaw Pact.

  • March 13, 1968

    Informal remarks by Czechoslovak Chief of General Staff, Gen. Otakar Rytír, at a Confidential Meeting of General Staff Officials, Prague

    General Otakar Rytír examines Czechoslovakia’s role within the Warsaw Treaty and discusses how it must be militarily independent, while still remaining loyal to the USSR.

  • May 22, 1968

    KGB Border Report to P. Shelest

    Report on lax border controls between Warsaw Pact nations and the Western District, USSR.

  • June 03, 1968

    Report on Meeting of Consultative Political Committee of the Warsaw Pact

    The report details changes that had been made to the Unified Command structure over the last two years (since 1966) and the effects that they would have on Romania and its relationship with the Warsaw Pact.

  • June 04, 1968

    Memorandum by Thirty Scholarly Associates of the Military Political Academy and Military Technical Academy for the Czechoslovak Communist Party Central Committee

    Memorandum outlining with the formulation of Czechoslovak state interests in the military area. The memorandum urges the elaboration of a state military doctrine of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic having as the point of departure the state interests of Czechoslovakia.

  • July 27, 1968

    Directive of the Ministry of Defense for Exercise ‘OVERCAST SUMMER-68’

    Directive describes how the military exercise Overcast Summer-68 ["Pochmurne Lato"] will transpire on August 1 on the border of Poland and Czechoslovakia from 28 July to 5 August 1968 and states the logistics of the exercise. Information includes what groups will be used, their commanding generals, equipment, and first aid materials. The document also details how communications between all parties involved will function, as well as signal words and numbers that are to be used under various situations. Directive is signed by Minister of Defense and General of Divisions, Wojciech Jaruzelski.

  • August 08, 1968

    Attaché Note from Prague on Events in Czechoslovakia from 28 July to 5 August 1968

    Memorandum from Chief of General Staff II General Oliwa to Chief of General Staff and Deputy Minister of National Defense, General Chocha. General Oliwa is sending a note from the Military Attaché in Prague assessing the events in Czechoslovakia from 28 July to 5 August 1968. The status of the party and public opinion on the party in Czechoslovakia is highlighted throughout.

  • August 20, 1968

    Secret Decree of the Council of Ministers of the PR of Bulgaria for the Participation of Bulgarian Troops in the Warsaw Pact Operation in Czechoslovakia

  • August 20, 1968

    Report No. 10 from Generals Pavlovsky and Kovalov to Brigadier General Florian Siwicki

    General Pavlovsky writes to the Commander of the Polish Second Army, Brigadier General Florian Siwicki. He lists preliminary steps in Operation Danube where the troops enter from Poland into Czechoslovakia.

  • August 20, 1968

    On the Troops’ State of Readiness

    Report given out by the Polish Army General Staff regarding the state of Polish combat troops for the intervention in Czechoslovakia. States that the armies are in full readiness and are ready to move toward Czechoslovakia at any time. An overview of the area in Czechoslovakia that they are invading is also given at length.

  • August 21, 1968

    Letter from the Central Committees of the Bulgarian, East German, Hungarian, Polish, and Soviet Communist Parties regarding the Warsaw Pact intervention in Czechoslovakia

    Letter from the Central Committees of the Communist Parties of East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria and the Soviet Union explaining the need for intervention in Czechoslovakia. The letter lays out the rationale behind the Brezhnev Doctrine.