GULAG CAMPS, 1959-73. FOLDER 19. THE CHEKIST ANTHOLOGYCITATION SHARE DOWNLOAD
get citationMitrokhin provides an overview of several corrective labor camps in different parts of the Soviet Union. He selectively describes the state of these facilities, the kinds of prisoners, disciplinary measures, difficulties, etc."Gulag Camps, 1959-73. Folder 19. The Chekist Anthology" June 01, 2007, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Contributed to CWIHP by Vasiliy Mitrokhin. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/111106
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Mitrokhin provides an overview of several corrective labor camps in different parts of the Soviet Union. He selectively describes the state of these facilities, the kinds of prisoners, disciplinary measures, difficulties, etc.
Up until 1956, Mitrokhin indicates, a large number of labor camps had been scattered across the Komi ASSR. The republic had 10,000 former convicts, particularly nationalists and members of the People's Workers' Union, the NTS. Due to these conditions, anti-Soviet organizations sprang up in the region.
One of such anti-Soviet developments took place in February 1968, when Lithuanian nationalists in the city of Vorkuta commemorated Lithuania's 50th anniversary of independence by getting together and calling on people to tune in to the Voice of America's broadcast of celebrations. Later, an incident with reported casualties occurred at one of the coal mines in Vorkuta, provoking negative sentiments against communism.
At a corrective labor camp in Dubravno, former foreign intelligence agents, cartel representatives, bourgeois nationalists, leaders of anti-Soviet and sectarian groupings, approximately 300 foreign citizens and persons without citizenship, and Chinese emigres are detained. The camp is run by the Ministry for Defense of Public Law and Order. Since 1963, all particularly dangerous state criminals, regardless of where they committed offence, are detained at the Dubravno camp. Among particularly dangerous criminals are Gingsburg, Galasnikov, Dobrovolsky, Dikman, and Fediunin. Prisoners Daniel and Siniavsky are having a bad influence on the rest of inmates. Prisoners Moroz, Goronia, Masiutko and others are trying to stir up nationalistic attitudes. They have established connections with peers in Ukraine, including Svetlichny, Dziuba, and Chornovil.
One of the critical requirements at corrective facilities is to maintain a differentiated placement of inmates. Mitrokhin writes that this is to ensure that recidivists and unrepentant "enemies of the people" are kept separate from those, who are likely to straighten out.