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Digital Archive International History Declassified

November 22, 1958


This document was made possible with support from the MacArthur Foundation, Leon Levy Foundation

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    Zhou Enlai and Kim Il Sung discuss the economic situation, electricity production, agricultural production, cooperativization, and the military in North Korea, as well as the withdrawal of the Chinese People's Army from the DPRK. Zhou and Kim also touched on issues relating to U.S.-Japan relations, inter-Korean relations, Chinese development, the Great Leap Forward, U.S. global strategy, Korean nationals in Japan, and Taiwan.
    "Minutes of Conversation between Zhou Enlai and Kim Il Sung," November 22, 1958, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, PRC FMA 204-00064-02, 9-25. Translated by Jeffrey Wang and Charles Kraus.
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Time: 22 November 1958 (Saturday), 1:00 p.m.

Location: Xihuating

Chinese Personnel: Vice Premier Peng Dehuai, Vice Premier He Long, Vice Premier Chen Yi, Vice-Minister Zhang Wentian, Ambassador Qiao Xiaoguang

[North] Korean Personnel: Premier Kim Il Sung, Vice Chairman of the KWP Pak Jeong-ae [Pak Jong Ae], Vice Premier and Foreign Affairs Minister Nam Il, Minister for National Defense Kim Gwang-hyeop [Kim Kwang Hyop], Minister for Culture and Education Ri Il-gyeong [Ri Il Gyong], and Ambassador Ri Yeong-ho [Ri Yong Ho].

Translator: Kang Ryong-gu [Kang Ryong Gu]

Documentation: Wang Shikun

Premier Kim Il Sung and the delegation of the [North] Korean government visited Premier Zhou Enlai on the afternoon of their arrival in Beijing. Premier Zhou invited the [North] Korean delegation to an afternoon banquet at Xihuating.

During the banquet, Premier [Zhou] asked about the state of industry and agriculture in [North] Korea. Premier Kim gave a brief introduction to the situation of food provisions, steel, and electricity in North Korea during 1958. Vice Premier Peng Dehuai asked about production in and exports from South Korea. He [Kim Il Sung] said South Korea’s [production] base was poor to begin with, and after being destroyed [during the Korean War] it has never recovered. Most materials are imported from the United States, and even if there are products in the market, the people do not have the money to purchase them. Vice Premier Peng Dehuai asked if South Korea is producing armaments. General Kim Gwang-hyeop said that recently South Korea has been preparing to build an arms factory in Busan [Pusan] in order to produce things such as bullets and grenades, but it was unknown if they had finished construction on the factory. He [Kim Gwang-hyeop] said that Syngman Rhee’s standing army has 700,000 personnel and that most of the South Korean budget goes toward military expenses.

Premier Zhou said the [Nobusuke] Kishi government is preparing to amend the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty, [but] that this is actually a method learned from West Germany [in which the government will] lie to the Japanese people and revive Japanese militarism, rearming Japan [in the process]. But the Japanese people have suffered from war—they were the first to suffer the disaster of nuclear weapons. Japan’s Social [Democratic] Party and the Japanese people will rise up against Nobusuke Kishi’s plans. This is good. Premier [Zhou] asked Premier Kim for his views on this [situation]. Premier Kim said that [Nobusuke] Kishi follows the United States and he will do what the United States wants him to do. Premier Zhou then said that the United States and Kishi’s plan will never be realized; even if they can make it work in the short term, it will fail in the end. The [entire] affair itself is negative, but what they are doing will only backfire and will teach the Japanese majority [a lesson about their government]. Recently Vice Premier Chen Yi issued a statement about Kishi’s doings; it was well received and supported by the Japanese people. Minister of Foreign Affairs Nam Il said that on the day after seeing Vice Premier Chen Yi’s statement, [North Korea] [also] issued an editorial, which enthusiastically supported Vice Premier Chen Yi’s statement.

Vice Premier Peng Dehuai inquired if South Korean fishermen have ventured north of the “38th parallel.” Premier Kim said that nine boats carrying around forty people had come across this spring. We invited them to tour the north [of Korea] and we even helped them to catch a lot of fish—we filled their boats with fish. Then we let them return [to South Korea] and they reacted very well. Premier Kim said that there were more [examples] than just this single case; some South Korean journalists also like to hear about North Korea’s development. Recently a meeting of journalists from North and South Korean was organized at Panmunjeom [Panmunjom], and we gave the [South Korean] journalists some files [about North Korea] which they really enjoyed and brought back to [South Korea] with them. Panmunjeom has become a place for meetings and contacts [between South Koreans and North Koreans]. Premier [Zhou], Vice Premier Peng , and Vice Premier Chen Yi, all praising this practice, believed the Panmunjeom meetings were very clever.

During the afternoon banquet, living problems were also discussed. The talks continued following the afternoon banquet.

Premier [Zhou Enlai]: China is presently smashing all the superstitions relating to industry and mining and [we have] mobilized the masses to engage [in these areas]. We are conducting survey work on radioactive materials and have distributed detectors to 2,000 counties and 20,000 communes across the country, allowing the masses to engage [in this work]. If they find a location with a sizeable amount [of radioactive materials], then they will keep it a secret; if there is not so much, then they will not keep it a secret. Industry is not mysterious—everyone can engage [in industry]. We have two phrases for this: allow all people to engage in industry; but for [the people] to engage is not so simple. On the one hand, [we should] allow everyone to engage in industry, but should this be on a large-scale or should it be focused[?] This is combining popular [engagement] with focused [engagement].

Premier Kim (to be abbreviated as Kim): After witnessing the experience of eradicating superstitions during China’s Great Leap Forward this year, [we also] engaged in cottage industries and small-scale industries. Presently, we have already set up more than 1,000 small-scale enterprises, [but] because of labor shortages, [we] cannot [set up enterprises] in too many areas, only in county locations. We mobilized family members of industrial personnel to work on light industries, food stuff industries, and commodities industries, which include ceramics as well as cement. It is also like this in the rural areas, as peasants use the slack period to engage in steelmaking and iron making. This is quite good, that the dynamism of the peasants is so high.

Premier [Zhou]: Indeed, because this can increase production.

Kim: If we do this, then it will be very convenient to set up irrigation works in rural areas. We have already established some small-scale hydroelectric power stations in rural areas, and we estimate that by next year all rural areas will have electricity. Currently, thirty-six percent of all rural areas in [North] Korea are still without electricity.

Premier [Zhou]: [In terms of] electricity, you are definitely ahead of us already.

Kim: Small-scale hydroelectric power stations are easy to establish [as] they only require small rivers.

Premier [Zhou]: This is good. Use both legs to walk. If large power plants were to fail, then the rural areas would be [negatively] affected.

Kim: All small-scale hydroelectric power stations are independent.

Premier [Zhou]: Approximately how many more will be added next year?

Kim: We can finish the Dongnogang [Tongro-gang] Power Plant by next year, which will be 80,000 watts. We are [also] restoring thermal power plants in several areas, and by next year we can reach [an output of] 10 billion/kWh. This year we want to increase it to 8.9 billion/kWh. Our goal is 20 billion/kWh.

Premier [Zhou]: Increasing to 20 billion/kWh—calculating by population, that would be 10,000/kWh for every ten people.

Vice Premier Peng: Judging from our situation, that number is high. It is even higher than Western Europe.

Premier [Zhou]: This year we have not yet reached 30 billion/kWh. Next year we can reach 80 billion/kWh.

Kim: There have been some shortcomings in our development of animal husbandry and cooking oil. Right now, [we] want to develop animal husbandry and vegetable cooking oil. The living [standard] of the people is constantly rising, so not only do they want to eat until they are full, they also want to eat well.

Premier [Zhou]: Were there droughts in your country this year?

Kim: [There were] severe droughts. The reservoirs had very little water, even the Supung Dam was short of it. This year has had the least amount of rain water [on record]. The elderly say that this is the worst it has been in 100 years. According to meteorological research, there should be more rain next year. At present, we have started an electricity conservation campaign [because] in the past [electricity] was wasted.

Premier [Zhou]: In the past, we saw some places in [North] Korea which did not turn off their lights.

Kim: Some places even used electricity to warm kang bed-stoves, but this [practice] has already been abolished.

Premier [Zhou]: Your plans for steel will also have to catch up.

Kim: We plan to produce 1 million tons of cast iron next year (450,000 tons this year), [as well as] 650,000 to 700,000 tons of steel (400,000 tons this year).

Premier [Zhou]: You can produce 1 million tons of steel by the year after next?

Kim: It can be reached by then.

Premier [Zhou]: You have 1 million tons of steel. That is 1 ton of steel for every 10 people. We need to produce 60 million tons of steel in order to be able to catch up with you. You are walking in front [of us], very good. Isn’t it great that you will be the first to build socialism? (Premier [Zhou] turns to Vice Chairman Pak Jeong-ae) Comrade Pak Jeong-ae, you [North Korea] are running very quickly ahead of us—we are very happy, we congratulate you [on this]. Pak Jeong-ae (smiles and nods).

Kim: It is with your assistance…

Vice Premier Chen: It is mostly by yourself. Through self-reliance.

Vice Premier Peng: North Korea has many favorable conditions [which facilitate development]: transportation, power, raw materials, and minerals.

Premier [Zhou]: How is the cotton this year?

Kim: Still very small [so] we rely mostly on China and the Soviet Union [for cotton]. This year the country purchased 50,000 tons of seed cotton.

Premier [Zhou]: 50,000 tons of seed cotton, 17,000 tons of processed cotton fiber—34 million catties and 300,000 picul.

Kim: Our cotton production is good this year, mainly because the weather has been good. It is also because we began to use nutrient tanks which can allow cotton to grow faster by a month. Next year we are prepared to grow more cotton. Our flax has been doing well this year as well, one jeongbo of land can produce one ton.

Premier [Zhou]: Your nutrient tanks are successful; [they] suit your climate. Because the period with no frost is short in Korea, Korean people—men and women—are accustomed to labor. We are also presently mobilizing women. You have enough raw materials for paper, [but] do you have enough raw materials for sugar?

Kim: In the past, we were a little superstitious about sugar. However, [based on what] the Minister for Light Industry saw in China last year, we will plant more sugar beets next year. [We will] use indigenous methods to produce sugar [and] it just might work. Next year we will produce 20,000 tons by ourselves. Currently we import more than 10,000 tons. [North] Koreans do not like to drink tea or coffee much [as] they are accustomed to drinking cold water.

Premier [Zhou]: You could plant some tea in the mountains.

Kim: [We] have no plan to do that at present. According to historical records, the southern part of Korea used to grow some specimens of tea brought over from China. Is it better to produce sugar from sugar canes or sugar beets?

Premier [Zhou]: Of course sugar canes are better. Sugar beets fall sick easily and are often attacked by pests. However, you have a short frost-free period, [so] I am afraid grouting for sugar canes will not be easy. Grouting for sugar beets is much faster.

Kim: During the Japanese colonial period [in Korea], sugar beets were planted once, but they had some problems and after that we did not try anymore. This year, [though], we planted some sugar beets. The situation still isn’t too bad.

Premier [Zhou]: How is the restoration of cottage industries coming along?

Kim: We have restored 900 small workshops, [while] production cooperatives have 700-800 [workshops].

Premier [Zhou]: How many agricultural cooperatives are there?

Kim: After mergers there are 3,873 of them—[we] merged villages and cooperatives.

Premier [Zhou]: You seem to have abolished one level [of cooperatives].

Kim: In the past there was a range, [but] we canceled the lower ranges. There are presently only four levels [of cooperatives].

Premier [Zhou]: Some simplification is good. How many counties do you have?

Kim: 200 counties.

Premier [Zhou]: How many provinces are there?

Kim: 9 provinces.

Premier [Zhou]: How many working personnel are there throughout the administrative bodies?

Kim: 16,000 people, not including educational personnel.

Premier [Zhou]: How many educational personnel are there?

Kim: 70,000 or 80,000 people. Since [we] reduced personnel, our government agency personnel to population ratio is the smallest among many countries.

Premier [Zhou]: Since we streamlined [personnel], there are a total of 13 million or 14 million personnel from the Central government down to local administrations. You have fewer people in Central government organizations; we have more people in Central government organizations. We also have more cities. From the center to the township, we have five levels. You have four levels from the center to the village.

Kim: We merged villages and cooperatives. This reduced 7,000 personnel.

Premier [Zhou]: This is a good method.

Kim: Our supply and marketing cooperatives were also merged into the village-cooperatives. This reduced another ten thousand people.

Premier [Zhou]: Are the livelihoods of personnel taken care by the cooperatives?

Kim: We are still experimenting, [so] the country provides [for them].

Premier [Zhou]: We still provide wages for the cadres who were sent down to lower levels. If all of the sudden the cooperatives had to [handle this], the burden on the cooperatives would be too great.

Kim: We have the cooperatives provide for them. Schools still have not been handed over to cooperative administration.

Premier [Zhou]: How many soldiers are there presently?

Kim: There are 300,000 soldiers—quite a lot.

Premier [Zhou]: With 300,000 soldiers, the burden is quite heavy. [But] this is because your situation is different [than ours]. How many workers are there?

Kim: There are 1.1 million workers and staff.

Premier [Zhou]: This is a good ratio.

Vice Premier Peng: [North] Korea’s industrial and agricultural output value ratio is higher than ours.

Premier [Zhou]: What is the announced output value for your industry and agriculture?

Kim: The industry to agriculture ratio is 70 percent, but I do not remember the specific figure.

Premier [Zhou]: North Korea’s industrialization, electrification, and mechanization are developing rapidly.

Kim: We have 30,000 agricultural tractors, [so just] 15,000 automobiles will do.

Premier [Zhou]: In Guangdong, we are experimenting with electric power to farm rice paddies. You can come and see it. When Norodom Sihanouk came to China he went to Tianjin to observe it. It was not good there. This method saves fuel and steel and is not cumbersome. The completion of your Five-Year Plan will be announced how many years in advance?

Kim: It can be completed next year (i.e., an early completion of two years), but we will announce early completion by one and a half years.

Premier [Zhou]: We can complete our Five-Year Plan this year. The conditions in Korea are good. It is different from the situation of East and West Germany. The living standards of the people are constantly rising and the people of South Korea will run over [to North Korea].

Kim: Our slogan is to fight hard for another two years. China has three [more] years of hard fighting.

Premier [Zhou]: Use development to influence it [South Korea]. Who will replace Syngman Rhee?

Kim: Lee Gi-bung He is a parliament member. He is also older.

Premier [Zhou]: In South Korea they only have the elderly left. Their ambassador stationed in Taiwan Kim Hong-il, is he one of Syngman Rhee’s cadres?

Kim: He originally belonged to the military system in puppet Manchukuo.

Nam Il: He does not seem like he is part of Syngman Rhee’s clique.

Premier [Zhou]: Is it possible for him to replace Syngman Rhee?

Kim: He [Kim Hong-il] does not have much prestige in South Korea. [At least] Lee Gi-bung has some prestige.

Premier [Zhou]: Wherever the United States stirs up trouble, the point is to create chaos, like in Iraq.

Vice Premier Chen: There was a coup in Sudan. It has been quite difficult to judge the affair clearly so far.

Premier [Zhou]: Armed coups continue to occur in Asian and African countries. There is an armed rebellion in Indonesia. There have been armed coups in North Africa, Algeria, Sudan, and Egypt. It is also like this in Iraq, Jordan, Ceylon, Pakistan, and Burma. Although U Nu said he left the government [in Burma], in truth it was an armed coup. In Thailand, it is the same. South Vietnam had two such troubles but they were suppressed. There are armed struggles everywhere. It is also this way in the Latin America, in the United States’ backyard. The United States is conducting military coups everywhere, and they are stirring up trouble by themselves. Armed struggles in nationalist countries are inevitable. Change may also take place in South Korea because they toy with the military [there]. There could be changes in South Korea, because they depend on military, not the masses, and there will always be people who oppose them. There are examples of several types: the first kind is Iraq—this is a good example. The revolution in Iraq was quite thorough, [but] the United States had no way [to counter the revolution]. They could not find [local] agents [to work with], so they had no choice but to recognize it [the revolution]. The second type is Indonesia. At first the United States assisted the rebels but Sukarno fought against the rebels resolutely. In the end, the United States had to recognize Sukarno. The third type is Lebanon. While Lebanon’s opposition compromised sometimes, they were [still] better than [President] Camille Chamoun. The U.S. sent troops to Lebanon, but in the end they still had to be withdrawn. They left a bad reputation. The fourth example is Latin America. The United States sought to conspire in Argentina, but in the end they failed. These are all [examples of] armed struggles. Some are revolutionary and others are counter-revolutionary, [but] at present in many places [these struggles] are exposing the failures of the United States. The elections in America this time produced a conclusion for it [U.S. policy]—Dulles’ brinksmanship was defeated. Vis-à-vis the socialist camp, [the U.S.] is basically on the defensive. Of course, if there are differences between us, they will still exploit them. [If] we are united, then they do not have a way [to exploit our differences]. The situation in Hungary is such an example, as is Taiwan. If we are determined, then they will reconsider [their strategy]—the situation at Quemoy [Jinmen] and Matsu [Mazu] also show that the United States is on the defensive. Every country in our socialist camp should first develop. The more consolidated we are, the more chaos there will be in the capitalist world. They do not recognize us at present. Very good. ([Zhou] laughs, then turns toward Vice Premier Chen Yi and says) This way our Foreign Minister has less work to do, fewer troubles.

Vice Premier Chen: [At this rate] I will be “unemployed.” They believe that the Taiwan issue has eased slightly, so they are stirring up trouble in the West. France wants to create a six-country trade alliance with Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and West Germany in order to resist Britain. Britain is outraged. It is good that Charles de Gaulle is coming to power. Quarrels will come up amongst them.

Vice Premier Peng: The United States exposes its weaknesses the most in Korea.

Premier [Zhou]: They are dying—in another ten years, now that will be [a site] worth seeing.

Vice Premier Peng: Getting worse every year, it is worth seeing.

Premier [Zhou]: You are [doing] better than us. You have wiped out illiteracy and are quick in learning new skills. The Soviet Union is also speeding up development. It is the big brother, [having] a strong base. Our base is thin. Our pace [of development] is fast but we have not accumulated enough [strength]. You are better off—you eliminated illiteracy.

Kim: Judging from the situation in northern Korea, 3.5 million tons of steel should be enough.

Premier [Zhou]: After working for another ten years, the socialist camp will be able to surpass imperialist countries in everything. At the very least, the main products [of the socialist camp] must surpass [the main products of imperialist countries].

Kim: I also think so. If we develop for ten years, this would have a great affect upon South Korea. This way, peaceful unification will be possible. As long as you hold the Americans at bay… (this sentence was not heard by the translating comrade, and was not translated.)

Premier [Zhou]: By then there will be changes in South Korea. For example in Taiwan, if Jiang Jieshi [Chiang Kai-shek] or his agents announced that [they] would communicate with the motherland [Mainland China], the United State would have no way [to prevent this]. This is to say, the fortress can be breached from the inside. External factors can influence internal factors; by going through internal factors, [external factors] can produce an effect.

Vice Premier Peng: Are there many Koreans in Japan?

Kim: There are 600,000 people. According to Japanese statistics, there are 400,000 people requesting to return to North Korea. After the armistice, they requested to return [but] at the time the conditions were not right. We can take them back now. They are presently campaigning to return to Korea. Minister of Foreign Affairs Nam Il has issued many statements about this. The Japanese government [however] has not formally replied. The Chongryeonhaphoe [General Association of Korean Residents in Japan] is leading the campaign among the Korean masses [in Japan]—leading Korean nationals to demand work from the Japanese government through a petition campaign. Japanese people have also established an organization to assist Korean nationals with repatriation (including Hatoyama of the Social Democratic Party). From the perspective of the Japanese people, their lives are difficult [so] they also hope that Korean nationals can return [to Korea]. The issue is that they want to return to North Korea, which will affect the “Japanese-Korean Talks.” The Japanese government is in an uncomfortable position. Minister of Foreign Affairs Nam Il handed a statement to the Japanese government through the Embassy of the Soviet Union in Japan, but after receiving it, the Japanese government returned the statement after three days.

Nam Il: The Japanese say that it is not easy for them to handle this.

Premier [Zhou]: Are there Japanese merchant ships that come over?

Kim: Small ships come secretly.

Premier [Zhou]: As long as they wish to return, it will happen sooner or later. It can take place slowly.

Kim: Our proposal also does not hold that they [should] return very quickly [but holds that it] will require a long-term struggle. [We] will first demand that the Japanese government help to make arrangements for the Korean nationals, giving them work. As long as they [the Korean nationals in Japan] struggle, their wishes can be realized.

Premier [Zhou]: The longer they are oppressed in Japan, the more anti-American and anti-Japanese they will become. In this way, they [the Japanese government] are actually helping us to train this group.

Kim: Public opinion in South Korea towards this policy is also very good. [While] we are looking after Korean nationals in Japan, the South Korean authorities have not done anything. The South Korean people are responding [to this situation]: only the Republic [North Korea] cares for them [Korean nationals in Japan] and [seeks to] solve their problems. Each year, we send 130-140 million Japanese yen for the education of Korean nationals in Japan. [We’ve] given this [money] three times already.

Premier [Zhou]: How do you send this money?

Kim: Through banks.

Premier [Zhou]: And Japan does not oppose it?

Kim: No, [because] this actually helps them to take care of some problems.

Premier [Zhou]: Does the Korean Workers’ Party have any views on how we are dealing with Taiwan? Do you understand [our methods]?

Kim: We fully support China’s actions.

Pak [Jeong-ae]: Completely support.

Premier [Zhou]: The Minister of National Defense has issued four proclamations.

Kim: Did Jiang Jieshi reply?

Premier [Zhou]: He has not yet dared to respond. But the contradictions between the U.S. and Jiang are still developing.

Vice Premier Peng: They said the proclamations [sought to] instigate the U.S.-Jiang relationship.

Vice Premier Chen: Yes, to instigate their relationship.

Kim: If they do not let the Americans go, the Americans will be scolded.

Premier [Zhou]: When you see the proclamation, you will understand it. Some comrades in the west, however, do not understand it [as] the words are difficult to translate. However Jiang Jieshi understands it and the United States has slowly come to understand it. Dulles understands it. He recently gave a speech to the U.S. National Church Committee which seems to have been directed at Chairman Mao’s paper tiger statement. He said that the free world has also been strengthened, and that there will be internal changes within the socialist countries. He is pinning his hopes on this—that internal contradictions will arise between us. This is why he doesn’t have any other methods right now; it also illustrates that does not dare to fight. The unity among us has strengthened while his fantasy has been shattered. He also said that freedom cannot be relied upon, that freedom is empty; he said that freedom will not bring stability to Asian and African countries and that they require economic assistance, that they need money. He wants those Christians to help him with ideological work to persuade capitalists not to overspend, but to invest in countries in Asia and Africa.

Vice Premier Peng: British steel [production] has decreased by 20 percent this year. In the United States, it has decreased by 25 percent. In both France and Japan, it is also going down.

Premier [Zhou]: Their world is becoming increasingly smaller and they still can’t cooperate. [There are also] economic crises and many contradictions.

Kim: What Premier Zhou said is correct. We need to gain time to build up our own [countries].

Premier [Zhou]: You have developed quite well. We are very happy. When the [Chinese People’s] Volunteer Army returned home, you gave such an enthusiastic [farewell], [but] I am afraid that their departure has affected your work?

Kim: When the [Chinese People’s] Volunteer Army withdrew from [North] Korea, it was the duty of the [North] Korean people to send them off. They shed blood in Korea; they have done many great deeds. What we did was also a form of education for the Korean people, while it also had a positive influence on external politics. Striking at the enemy’s rumor that the [Chinese People’s] Volunteer Army was not popular among the Korean people…… (the translating comrade did not hear clearly, the rest is not translated). However, we did not make it [the farewell] elaborate enough.

Premier [Zhou]: What you have done is elaborate enough. Mr. Guo [Moruo] has written so many poems after he returned from Korea. We cannot finish talking about it.

Kim: When the [People’s] Volunteer Army withdrew from [North] Korea, there were very few people in [North] Korea who did not cry. This is how the people felt. I thank you for your compliment about our country’s development. It is encouraging to us.

Premier [Zhou]: Your situation has not been easy.

Kim: Lastly, I would like to say this. When Vice Premier Ri Ju-yeon [Ri Ju Yon] and Comrade Ri Jong-ok [Ri Jong Ok] came to China last time, they resolved questions about long-term trade and loans. We were quite happy [about this] and, while I am here, I would like to express my thanks.

Premier [Zhou]: Our strength is limited, and we have done very little.

Kim: We are already very satisfied. The Standing Committee was quite pleased to hear Comrade Ri Ju-yeon’s report.

Premier [Zhou]: In the future, after we finished [our own] development, we can provide more assistance. When everyone has finished developing socialism, we will all be very happy. After you return from Vietnam, are we going to issue a communiqué?

Kim Il Sung, Pak Jeong-ae and Minister of Foreign Affairs Nam Il all expressed agreement to issue a communiqué simultaneously.

Premier [Zhou]: That is good. We will appoint our two Foreign Ministers to work on it, and they can then appoint others to work on it. We do not have to worry about it.

Kim: The visiting military delegation does not have very many things to talk about this time. In the past, when the [People’s] Volunteer Army was [in Korea], we always made contact with the [People’s] Volunteer Army. Now that the [People’s] Volunteer Army has already returned, we need to discuss the issue of future contact. The other thing is learning from each other, exchanging military education, and other experiences. We ask Minister Peng Dehuai to please help us.

Premier [Zhou]: Very good, he (referring to Commander-in-chief Peng) belongs to the People’s Liberation Army as well as the [People’s] Volunteer Army.

Vice Premier Peng: The military delegation can see what they want to see. There are no secrets between fraternal countries.

Kim: Last time when the [North] Vietnamese government delegation visited [North] Korea, they had a military delegation follow them. The [North] Korean military delegation is also coming along to [North] Vietnam. After their return from Vietnam, they do not have to return [to North Korea] with the government delegation; they can stay in China for a while longer and look around.

Premier [Zhou]: That is also well. Regarding the itinerary of the military delegation we will have the Foreign Office of the Ministry of National Defense handle the detailed discussions.