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Digital Archive International History Declassified

April 26, 1960

JOURNAL OF SOVIET AMBASSADOR IN THE DPRK A.M. PUZANOV FOR 26 APRIL 1960

This document was made possible with support from the ROK Ministry of Unification, Leon Levy Foundation

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    Pak Yong-guk sounds off on North Korea's reactions to the protest movement in South Korea and demands the "immediate withdrawal of American troops from South Korea."
    "Journal of Soviet Ambassador in the DPRK A.M. Puzanov for 26 April 1960" April 26, 1960, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, AVPRF fond 0102, opis 16, delo 6, p.147-163. Translated for NKIDP by Gary Goldberg. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/116111
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USSR EMBASSY IN THE DPRK [faded USSR   TOP SECRET

MFA stamp:                     Copy Nº 3

Nº 77 01047s

2 May 1960 16 May 1960]

[Handwritten notations:

to [[illegible name] and

G. Ye. Samsonov]

JOURNAL

of Soviet Ambassador in the DPRK A. M. PUZANOV for the period

12 April through 27 April 1960

Pyongyang

[…]

26 April 1960

At the instructions of the CC, Chief of the KWP CC International Department Pak Yong-guk [Pak Yong Guk], provided information for ambassadors about events in South Korea in recent days through KWP CC channels. Pak Yong-guk reported the following.

Complete chaos reigns in South Korea. Demonstrations continue in Seoul and throughout the entire country. For example, in Seoul on 25 April a demonstration of several dozen thousand people continued until late in the night. There were clashes with troops. The demonstrators have managed to enter into good relations with the tank troops. Demonstrators gave speeches from one tank. According to a report of South Korean radio at 12:00 the number of demonstrators had reached 100,000. Their number is increasing. All life in Seoul is paralyzed. Rebellious masses of the population have destroyed a bronze monument to Syngman Rhee. Yesterday demonstrators wrecked the apartment of Vice President Yi Gi-bung, who was elected on 15 March. It is not known where he is himself. There is hesitation among the police, which has especially increased after rumors spread that former Minister of Internal Affairs Choe In-gyu had fled to Taiwan. Many policemen want to avoid serving in the police under strong pressure from the popular masses and are reluctant go to suppress demonstrations. The Americans and Syngman Rhee's supporters are very afraid of the soldiers of the South Korean army. Therefore they have given orders not to inform the army about the actual events in the country, meetings between servicemen and relatives have been stopped, and correspondence has also been prohibited. Some unreliable units have been disarmed. It has become increasingly difficult for the Americans to cope with the situation which has been created in South Korea. The Americans would like to leave Syngman Rhee in the post of President and just replace the government. But as events are showing the popular masses do not agree with this, they want the elimination of the reactionary Syngman Rhee regime.

At 10:00 26 April, Syngman Rhee made a statement in which he expresses readiness to resign if the people do not support him. Pak Yong-guk said, we think that in such a situation it will be hard for Syngman Rhee to remain in the post of President, but the coming days will show Syngman Rhee's real intentions.

In connection with such a situation in South Korea, continued Pak Yong-guk, the KWP CC intends to hold a meeting with all leaders of public and political organizations of the DPRK on 27-28 April and make the following demands:

the main demand: American troops are to immediately leave South Korea and American aggressive circles are not to interfere in the internal affairs of South Korea;

abolish the reactionary Syngman Rhee regime, disband the government and parliament (the National Assembly); arrest Syngman Rhee and hand him over to a people's court;

immediately cancel the state of emergency in the country, release all those arrested during the demonstrations and all political prisoners from prison;

hold new elections to parliament to which representatives of the workers and peasants should be elected;

the newly-elected parliament of South Korea is to merge with the People's Assembly of the DPRK;

restore the activity of political parties and organizations which were disbanded by the Syngman Rhee government;

hold a Conference of representatives of North and South Korea at which the situation in South Korea and steps to reunify the country are to be discussed.

In conclusion Pak Yong-guk thanked the fraternal socialist countries for the aid and support being given. But, considering the situation which has been created in South Korea, the KWP CC would now like to receive support from the fraternal socialist countries on the issue of the immediate withdrawal of American troops from South Korea and of American non-interference in the internal affairs of South Korea, to support the DPRK that the situation which has been created in the South of Korea is the result of the 15 years of the Americans' colonial dominance.

Pak Yong-guk then said that if strong pressure is put on the Americans in the international arena they will be forced to withdraw their troops, and then conditions will be created for the peaceful reunification of the country.

[…]

USSR AMBASSADOR IN THE DPRK

[signature] (A. PUZANOV)

Five copies printed

1st - to Cde. A. A. Gromyko

2nd - to Cde. Yu. V. Andropov

3rd - to the USSR MFA DVO

4th - to Cde. I. I. Tugarinov

5th - to file

Nº 259 29 April 1960