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Digital Archive International History Declassified

October 07, 1960

JOURNAL OF SOVIET AMBASSADOR IN THE DPRK A.M. PUZANOV FOR 7 OCTOBER 1960

This document was made possible with support from the ROK Ministry of Unification, Leon Levy Foundation

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    Kim Tae-hui briefs the foreign diplomatic community in the DPRK on the struggles in South Korea and for the peaceful reunification of the country.
    "Journal of Soviet Ambassador in the DPRK A.M. Puzanov for 7 October 1960," October 07, 1960, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, AVPRF fond 0102, opis 16, delo 7, p.130-150. Translated for NKIDP by Gary Goldberg. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/116131
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FROM THE JOURNAL[faded USSRTOP SECRET

OF A. M. PUZANOVMFA stamp:   Copy Nº 1

02214-gs

20-24 October 1960

17 October 1960

Nº 169

[handwritten in the left margin: "DVO [Far East Department"]

JOURNAL

of Soviet Ambassador in the DPRK Cde. A. M. PUZANOV

from 8 [SIC] through 14 October 1960

Pyongyang

[…]

7 October 1960

(meeting of ambassadors at the KWP CC in connection with the 15th anniversary of the formation of the KWP:

…Then Deputy Foreign Minister Kim Tae-hui [Kim Thae Hui] told about the current situation in South Korea.

He said, after the April uprising the love and respect for our Party and government is constantly increasing among the population of South Korea. At the same time a hatred of the American imperialists is growing and the struggle for the peaceful reunification of the motherland is expanding.

As is well known, this struggle does not have enough organization. But anti-American sentiments are constantly increasing among the population of South Korea.

At the present time what is most characteristic of the situation in South Korea is that the issue of the peaceful reunification of the country is at the center of attention of broad strata of the population and public opinion. Previously people were subjected to brutal repression for merely a single statement about this issue. But recently the people can make demands for the peaceful reunification of the motherland.

A movement for active support of our proposals concerning the peaceful reunification of the country is becoming increasingly stronger in South Korea, especially the recent proposals offered by Cde. Kim Il Sung on 14 August 1960.

The population of South Korea is expressing its opinion about the issue of peaceful reunification in the form of conversations, discussions, and statements in the press.

Recently students of South Korean institutes have been demanding the quickest possible achievement of the peaceful reunification of the country and have been organizing broad discussions on this issue. The new school year began on 1 September and discussions about the peaceful reunification of the country began on this day in the institutes of South Korea. In Seoul a conference of students about the issue of the peaceful reunification of the country was held at Korea University at which student [Ku Hon Nam] declared, "For 15 years our political leaders could not reunite Korea, and therefore I think the time has come for students to take the cause of the peaceful reunification of their country into their own hands". Many students proposed demanding the withdrawal of all foreign troops, the organization of a joint Committee for the Reunification of the Country of representatives of South and North Korea with equal rights, and also the holding of nationwide elections under the supervision of neutral countries.

The struggle for the peaceful reunification of the country is increasing among teachers and instructors, and also among peasants and workers.

Demands about the peaceful reunification of the country are appearing in the South Korean press with increasing frequency. The editorial of the 16 August [issue] of the newspaper Kukche Ilbo devoted to this issue said, "We all should think again about the proposal of the Premier of North Korea. The proposals about the peaceful reunification of the country offered by Kim Il Sung in the new theater in Pyongyang are an issue which requires deep study by our public figures and the entire population".

The article spoke in detail about the substance of the proposals made by Cde. Kim Il Sung.

South Korean newspapers are writing that South Korea should move away from old positions and treat the present situation realistically. The newspaper Tonga Ilbo writes that the proposal about the creation of a Federation has the goal of hastening the reunification of the country, but at the same time pursues the goal of disarming South Korea before North Korea.

Kim Tae-hui continues, it can be said that there is a lively discussion of the issue of the peaceful reunification of the motherland in South Korea. There is also a lively discussion about economic issues. The newspaper Kukche Ilbo writes that there are rich natural resources in North Korea but South Korea is the country's granary, and therefore they need to be developed together and then an independent economy can be achieved. The newspaper stressed that the problem of electrical energy in South Korea cannot be solved without North Korea.

Under the pressure of such statements the ruling circles of South Korea have also been forced to speak on the issues of peaceful reunification. Of course, they are opposed to the proposals of the DPRK, but have been forced to reckon with the situation which has been created and the demands of public opinion.

For example, on 24 August the South Korean Minister of Foreign Affairs stated, "We have to hold nationwide elections in the North and the South under UN observation". On 30 September Premier Jang Myeon in his policy speech in parliament said in particular, "In the event that respect for the interests of our country are shown in a UN General Assembly resolution then we will reunify the country under the observation of and with the assistance of the UN". It is significant that he did not use the word "anti-Communism" in this speech, which is the result of the vigorous action of the public and the people against the brutal repression of the Syngman Rhee clique which occurred previously. Such a situation which is developing in South Korea at the present time graphically confirms the vital force of the proposals of our Party and government concerning the peaceful reunification of the country.

The Deputy Minister said in conclusion that the situation which has been developing recently in South Korea requires even more vigorous activity from our side, for it opens up vistas where our proposals will be certainly realized.

Then the ambassadors who were present asked some questions in connection with the information about the situation in South Korea.

GDR Ambassador Kurt Schneidewind asked about an increase of various credits granted to South Korea by capitalist countries, particularly the FRG.

Answer. Up to now the main source of economic aid to South Korea has been the US. As of the end of 1959 South Korea had received aid from the US in the amount of ten billion four hundred thousand dollars. Seventy-four percent of this aid was received in the form of military equipment and military materiel, and the rest in the form of various goods. This aid is given under the false slogan of helping revive the national economy of South Korea. In fact the national economy of South Korea is in serious condition. Therefore the government of South Korea is promising to help small businessmen through foreign capital brought in from Japan and the FRG. South Korea is striving to get technical assistance from the FRG, especially equipment for chemical enterprises. However, according to available information, no specific agreement on this account exists between the FRG and South Korea.

The information was recorded by Embassy First Secretary A. M. Yulin.

xxx

I received Georgiy Kostov Bogdanov, Ambassador of the People's Republic of Bulgaria at his request.

The Ambassador said that in August the government of the People's Republic of Bulgaria proposed that the Korean friends hold talks and conclude a long-term trade agreement. The Korean leadership delayed a reply until the end of September. The substance of the reply: [The DPRK] is not ready to conclude such an agreement right now.

The Ambassador expressed surprise why the Korean friends did not directly [state] the reasons for declining their request but, in his opinion, [the reason] is that the DPRK is holding talks right now with the Chinese, which is evident from the report of the arrival in Peking of a DPRK government economic delegation headed by Ri Ju-yeon. The Ambassador also noted in the form of a question: do the Korean leaders want to take advantage of the existing differences on some international issues between the CPC and the Communist Parties of the other socialist [countries] to obtain some economic advantage from this?

I told the Ambassador that, as far as we know, at the beginning of May of this year the Korean leaders turned to the Soviet government and the PRC government with requests for economic aid. Kim Il Sung personally made unofficial visits to Peking in May and Moscow in the middle of June.

I informed the Ambassador what economic aid has been given the DPRK by the Soviet Union and how Kim Il Sung reacted in the conversation with Cde. N. S. Khrushchev with respect to the incorrect views of the leaders of the Chinese Communist Party.

The Ambassador expressed gratitude for the information.

[…]

SOVIET AMBASSADOR IN THE DPRK [signature](A. Puzanov)

Five copies sent re

1 - Cde. A. A. Gromyko

2 - Cde. Yu. V. Andropov

3 - Cde. V. I. Tugarinov

4 - UVPI MID SSSR

5 - to file

17 October 1960

Nº 489