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Digital Archive International History Declassified

July 30, 1960

JOURNAL OF SOVIET AMBASSADOR TO THE DPRK A.M. PUZANOV FOR 30 JULY 1960

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    Puzanov and Pak Geum-cheol exchange their opinions on the Soviet-North Korean relationship, Soviet economic aid toward North Korea, and North Korea's policies toward South Korea.
    "Journal of Soviet Ambassador to the DPRK A.M. Puzanov for 30 July 1960," July 30, 1960, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, AVPRF fond 0102, opis 16, delo 7, p.16-42. Translated for NKIDP by Gary Goldberg. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/119439
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USSR EMBASSY [USSR MFA Far   [USSR MFA General

IN THE DPRK East Department stamp: Secretariat stamp:

Nº 135 SECRET Incoming Nº 01712s SECRET Incoming Nº

9 August 1960 12-18 August 1960] 09153gs

12 August 1960]

TOP SECRET

Copy Nº 1

JOURNAL

of Soviet Ambassador in the DPRK A. M. PUZANOV for the period

29 June through 8 August 1960

Pyongyang

[…]

30 July 1960

I met with Pak Geum-cheol in the KWP CC on the basis of a preliminary agreement (see the conversation of 22 July) and had a three-hour conversation with them.

At the beginning of the conversation Pak Geum-cheol said that KWP CC Presidium and DPRK government members were very touched and delighted when they became familiar with the contents of the letter of Cde. N. S. Khrushchev addressed to Kim Il Sung. Pak Geum-cheol said, in this we see the great role of Cde. N. S. Khrushchev personally.

The new Soviet aid will give great assistance in the solution of large problems raised by the seven-year plan for the development of the DPRK economy, primarily in raising the standard of living of the country's population. We cannot say that we did not have any shortcomings in the use of the Soviet aid previously given, but on the whole it was used correctly. We will try to use the new Soviet aid more efficiently.

On behalf of the Party CC leadership Pak Geum-cheol expressed gratitude to the Ambassador for this role in this matter.

I said that our Soviet Government and CPSU CC always examine all requests and wishes of the fraternal socialist countries comprehensively and deeply. And this time our leaders carefully considered the requests expressed by Kim Il Sung during his trip to Moscow. The Soviet people note the successes of the workers of the DPRK with great satisfaction and express the hope that the new seven-year plan will also be fulfilled successfully. As regards the gratitude expressed to the Ambassador I thank you for the attention, but have to say that my role in this matter was small; I am only carrying out an assignment of my Party and government concerning the further strengthening of the friendship and cooperation between the USSR and DPRK.

Yes, said Pak Geum-cheol, a correct understanding of the policy of our Party has great importance for the strengthening of the friendship between our peoples.

Then Pak Geum-cheol especially stressed the important role of Cde. N. S. Khrushchev personally in the unwavering pursuit of a policy of peaceful coexistence, the strengthening of peace in the entire world, and the friendship of the peoples of the socialist camp.

Pak Geum-cheol said, all the entire ardent, tireless activity of Cde. N. S. Khrushchev is directed at the pursuit of a peace-loving foreign policy. For example, right now the American imperialist dominate in South Korea. However, at the present time the international situation is such that the KWP and DPRK government have conditions to pursue a policy of peaceful coexistence. The KWP's struggle for the peaceful reunification of the country is a constituent part of a policy of peaceful coexistence which the Soviet Government and Cde. N. S. Khrushchev personally are so consistently pursuing.

At Pak Geum-cheol's request I informed him of the work and decisions of the July CPSU CC plenum, to which he exhibited great interest and attention.

Pak Geum-cheol called the welding methods that we use in the USSR remarkable, but he characterized the innovation of engineer Kozlov's mill as a revolution in construction. All this interest us very much. He then said that the decisions of the CPSU CC Plenum will help us inasmuch as right now they are preparing for a KWP CC plenum which will discuss the issue of the technical reconstruction of industry.

Then I informed Pak Geum-cheol about the report o Cde. F. R. Kozlov about the results of the conference of representatives of Communist and worker's Parties in Bucharest. I spoke in detail about the incorrect positions of the Chinese leaders, who opposed the main points of the Declaration and Peace Manifesto and have begun a struggle against the CPSU and Communist Parties. After the information I reported that many articles would be placed in the Soviet press about the issues of peaceful coexistence, the struggle for peace, about war and peace, about the various forms of transitioning to socialism, etc.

Pak Geum-cheol said that he had received very important and needed information. Of course, when meeting with Cde. Kim Il Sung, he noted, you (that is, the Ambassador) told him something new in comparison with what he previously knew from Cde. Kim Chang-man.

Pak Geum-Cheol said the CPSU has correct Marxist-Leninist positions. It is experienced and tempered in conflict. We cannot agree with those who oppose the Soviet Union and the CPSU. As is well known, our senior officials are working in close accord with the KWP policy and instructions of Cde. Kim Il Sung. Right now the entire KWP is strongly united around its CC headed by Cde. Kim Il Sung and it is in the united camp of all the countries of socialism. The leaders of the Party and government, and Cde. Kim Il Sung personally, have repeatedly stressed that the DPRK is a member of the great camp of socialism headed by the Soviet Union. Cde. Kim Il Sung always points out to us that it is thanks to the strength and power of the Soviet Union, the development of its science, the growth of its strengthen that the other countries of the socialist camp can quickly develop their economies, and the imperialists fear the might of the USSR; they will not unleash a war because they fear the strength and might of the Soviet Union, of the entire camp of socialism.

Pak Geum-Cheol continued, we will always support the vigorous activity of Cde. N. S. Khrushchev and also the Manifesto of Peace, the Moscow Declaration, like the struggle for peaceful coexistence. The vigorous activity and tireless struggle of Cde. N. S. Khrushchev for peaceful coexistence has enormous, vital importance for maintaining peace and for strengthening the unity of the countries of the socialist camp. I can say that relations between our Parties will continue to further strengthen. The position taken by the Chinese comrades is incorrect, and we cannot agree with it.

Pak Geum-Cheol also pointed out that in the current situation it is very important for everyone to maintain the unity and cohesion of the entire socialist camp.

I said that our common goal is to strengthen the unity of the entire socialist camp. Our Party has always correctly determined the ways, methods, and means to achieve the set goal at every step of building socialism and Communism. Thanks to this we have also achieved considerable success in the building of socialism and communism, in strengthening the unity and cohesion of the socialist camp, and in the growth of its might and authority.

The positions and conclusions made about the most important current international problems by the 20th and 21st CPSU congressed have been recognized by all Communist and worker's Parties as correct, they have been unanimously approved in the Peace Declaration and Manifesto. The Chinese leaders are giving an incorrect appreciation of the nature of the modern era. But, to give an incorrect appreciation is to give an incorrect direction to the entire Communist and worker's movement and to give the imperialists an excuse for a further arms race.

A sharp ideological struggle is imminent. We cannot and will not retreat, since we are firmly convinced that the positions of the CPSU, KWP, and other fraternal Parties are correct we hold to these positions, although the Chinese falsely state that we, they say, are against Lenin, and they are for Lenin.

Further, he cited the people's communes created in China as an example of the mistakenness not only of the foreign but also of the domestic policy of the Chinese leaders. He showed in detail how incorrect and premature was the decision of the Chinese about the creation of the people's communes.

Pak Geum-Cheol said that the path of a people's commune is an internal matter of the Chinese. We, he said, will travel the path of strengthening and developing the agricultural cooperative.

Then I told about the other mistakes of the Chinese on such issues of domestic policy as ignoring and even crusading against the principle of material interest, the development of "small" metallurgy, the uneven development of the economy, etc. While doing this I stressed the entire pretentiousness of the Chinese for leadership of the international Communist and worker's movement in spite of their mistakes in the pursuit of foreign and domestic policy.

Pak Geum-Cheol said that the Korean Worker's Party firmly pursues the principle of material interest, while correcting certain shortcomings which inevitably arise in the process.

Of course, said Pak Geum-Cheol, our Party is traveling the same path as the CPSU although not at such a rapid tempo. Our construction tempo, he said, is also high, since sometimes shortcomings arise in the quality of the work.

Pak Geum-Cheol said that we never made such mistakes as the Chinese but if difficulties arise then we will turn to the CPSU and the Soviet Union for advice and help.

Then Pak Geum-Cheol mentioned that a KWP CC plenum would be held in August which would discuss issues of the technical reconstruction of industry and other issues. Pak Geum-Cheol said, we will consider the decision of the CPSU CC in order to use them in our development.

We thanked one another for the interesting and useful information and the exchange of opinions.

The conversation was interpreted by Kim [Yen Nam], Deputy Chief of the KWP CC International Department, and B. M. Morozov, Soviet Embassy interpreter.

[…]

SOVIET AMBASSADOR IN THE DPRK [signature] /A. PUZANOV/

Five copies printed v[i]

1 - Cde. A. A. Gromyko

2 - Cde. Yu. V. Andropov

3 - Cde. I. I. Tugarinov

4 - USSR MFA UVPI

5 - to file

Nº 395 - 9 August 1960