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Digital Archive International History Declassified

April 29, 1954

AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE REPUBLIC OF INDIA AND THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ON TRADE AND INTERCOURSE BETWEEN THE TIBET REGION OF CHINA AND INDIA

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    China and India put forth the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, which call for mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty, mutual non-aggression, mutual non-interference in each other's internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful co-existence.
    "Agreement between the Republic of India and the People's Republic of China on Trade and Intercourse between the Tibet Region of China and India," April 29, 1954, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Renmin ribao (People's Daily), April 30, 1954. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/121558
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The Government of the Republic of India and the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China.

Being desirous of promoting trade and cultural intercourse between Tibet Region of China and India and of facilitating pilgrimage and travel by the peoples of China and India.

Have resolved to enter into the present Agreement based on the following principles:

(1) mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty,

(2) mutual non-aggression

(3) mutual non-interference in each other's internal affairs,

(4) equality and mutual benefit, and

(5) peaceful co-existence.

And for this purpose have appointed as their respective Plenipotentiaries: The Government of the Republic of India, H.E. Nedyam Raghvan, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of India accredited to the People's Republic of China;

The Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China, H.E. Chang Han-fu [Zhang Hanfu], Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Central People's Government, who, having examined each other's credentials and finding them in good and due form, have agreed upon the following:

Article I

The High Contracting Parties mutually agree to establish Trade Agencies:

(1) The Government of India agrees that the Government of China may establish Trade Agencies at New Delhi, Calcutta and Kalimpong.

(2) The Government of China agrees that the Government of India may establish Trade Agencies at Yatung, Gyantse and Gartok.

The Trade Agencies of both Parties shall be accorded the same status and same treatment. The Trade Agents of both Parties shall enjoy freedom from arrest while exercising their functions, and shall enjoy in respect of themselves, their wives and children who are dependent on them for livelihood freedom from search.

The Trade Agencies of both Parties shall enjoy the privileges and immunities for couriers, mail-bags and communications in code.

Article II

The High Contracting Parties agree that traders of both countries known to be customarily and specifically engaged in trade between Tibet Region of China and India may trade at the following places:

(1) The Government of China agrees to specify (1) Yatung, (2) Gyantse and (3) Phari as markets for trade. The Government of India agrees that trade may be carried on in India, including places like (1) Kalimpong, (2) Siliguri and (3) Calcutta, according to customary practice.

(2) The Government of China agrees to specify (1) Gartok, (2) Pulanchung (Taklakot), (3) Gyanima-Khargo, (4) Gyanima-Chakra, (5) Ramura, (6) Dongbra, (7) Puling-Sumdo, (8) Nabra, (9) Shangtse and (10) Tashigong as markets for trade; the Government of India agrees that in future, when in accordance with the development and need of trade between the Ari District of Tibet Region of China and India, it has become necessary to specify markets for trade in the corresponding district in India adjacent to the Ari District of Tibet region of China, it will be prepared to consider on the basis of equality and reciprocity to do so.

Article III

The High Contracting Parties agree that pilgrimage by religious believers of the two countries shall be carried on in accordance with the following provisions:

(1) Pilgrims from India of Lamaist, Hindu and Buddhist faiths may visit Kang Rimpoche (Kailas) and Mavam Tso (Mansarovar) in Tibet Region of China in accordance with custom.

(2) Pilgrims from Tibet Region of China of Lamaist and Buddhist faiths may visit Banaras, Sarnath, Gaya and Sanchi in India in accordance with custom.

(3) Pilgrims customarily visiting Lhasa may continue to do so in accordance with custom.

Article IV

Traders and pilgrims of both countries may travel by the following passes and route:

(1) Shipki La pass, (2) Mana pass, (3) Niti pass, (4) Kungri Bingri pass, (5) Darma pass, and (6) Lipu Lekh pass.

Also, the customary route leading to Tashigong along the valley of the Shangatsangpu (Indus) River may continue to be traversed in accordance with custom.

Article V

For travelling across the border, the High Contracting Parties agree that diplomatic personnel, officials and nationals of the two countries shall hold passports issued by their own respective countries and visaed by the other Party except as provided in Paragraphs 1,2,3 and 4 of this Article.

(1) Traders of both countries known to be customarily and specifically engaged in trade between Tibet Region of China and India, their wives and children who are dependent on them for livelihood and their attendants will be allowed entry for purposes of trade into India or Tibet Region of China, as the case may be, in accordance with custom on the production of certificates duly issued by the local government of their own country or by its duly authorised agents and examined by the border check-posts of the other Party.

(2) Inhabitants of the border districts of the two countries who cross the border to carry on petty trade or to visit friends and relatives may proceed to the border districts of the other Party as they have customarily done heretofore and need not be restricted to the passes and route specified in Article IV above and shall not be required to hold passports, visas or permits.

(3) Porters and mule-team drivers of the two countries who cross the border to perform necessary transportation services need not hold passports issued by their own country, but shall only hold certificates good for a definite period of time (three months, half a year or one year) duly issued by the local government of their own country or by its duly authorised agents and produce them for registration at the border check posts of the other Party.

(4) Pilgrims of both countries need not carry documents of certification but shall register at the border check posts of the other Party and receive a permit for pilgrimage.

(5) Notwithstanding the provisions of the foregoing paragraphs of this Article, either Government may refuse entry to any particular person.

(6) Persons who enter the territory of the other Party in accordance with the foregoing paragraphs of this Article may stay within its territory only after complying with the procedures specified by the other Party.

Article VI

The present Agreement shall come into effect upon ratification by both Governments and shall remain in force for eight (8) years. Extension of the present Agreement may be negotiated by the two Parties if either Party requests for its six (6) months prior to the expiry of the Agreement and the request is agreed to by the other Party.

Done in duplicate in Peking on the twenty-ninth day of April, 1954, in the Hindi, Chinese and English languages, all texts being equally valid.

(Sd.) NEDYAM RAGHAVAN,

Plenipotentiary of the

Government of the Republic

of India

(Sd.) CHANG HAN-FU

Plenipotentiary of the Central

People's Government,

People's Republic of China

CHINESE (TRANSCRIPTION) HTML

中华人民共和国中央人民政府和印度共和国政府为了促进中国西藏地方和印度之间的通商贸易和文化交流并便利两国人民互相朝圣和往来起见,双方同意基于(一)互相尊重领土主权、(二)互不侵犯、(三)互不干涉内政、(四)平等互惠、(五)和平共处的原则,缔结本协定,并各派全权代表如左:

  中华人民共和国中央人民政府特派中央人民政府外交部副部长章汉夫;

  印度共和国政府特派印度驻中华人民共和国特命全权大使赖嘉文。

双方全权代表互相校间全权证书,认为妥善后,议定下列各条:

第一条缔约双方同意互设商务代理处:

一、印度政府同意中国政府得在新德里、加尔各答、噶伦堡三地设立商务代理处。

二、中国政府同意印度政府得在亚东、江孜、噶大克三地设立商务代理处。

  双方商务代理处享有同等地位和同等待遇。双方商务代理在执行职务时享有不受逮捕之权;商务代理本人、依靠其生活的妻子及子女享有不受检查之权。

  双方商务代理处并享有信使、邮袋和以密码通讯的权利及豁免。

第二条缔约双方同意凡按习惯专门从事于中国西藏地方和印度之间的贸易的双方商人得在下列地点进行贸易:

一、中国政府同意指定(一)亚东、(二)江孜、(三)帕里为贸易市场。

  印度政府同意按习惯得在印度,包括(一)噶伦堡、(二)西里古里、(三)加尔各答等地进行贸易。

二、中国政府同意指定(一)噶大克、(二)普兰宗(塔格拉各特)、(三)姜叶马加尔果、(四)姜叶马查克拉、(五)热姆惹、(六)董不惹、(七)波林三多、(八)那不拉、(九)尚格齐、(十)扎锡岗为贸易市场;印度政府同意将来由于中国西藏地方阿里地区与印度之间通商贸易的发展和需要而成为必要时,印度政府在平等互惠基础上准备在印度方面靠近中国西藏地方阿里地区的相应地区考虑指定贸易市场。

第三条关于两国香客朝圣事宜,缔约双方同意按照下列各款的规定办理:

一、凡属印度的喇嘛教徒、印度教徒和佛教徒得按惯例往中国西藏地方的康仁波清(开拉斯山)和马法木错(玛那萨罗瓦湖)朝拜。

二、凡属中国西藏地方的喇嘛教徒和佛教徒得按惯例往印度的贝纳拉斯、鹿野苑、加雅和桑吉四地朝拜。

三、凡按惯例往拉萨朝拜者,仍依照习惯办理之。

第四条双方商人和香客经由下列山口和道路来往:

(一)什布奇山口、(二)玛那山口、(三)尼提山口、(四)昆里宾里山口、(五)达玛山口、(六)里普列克山口。同时沿桑格藏布河(印度河)的河谷到扎锡岗的习惯道路,仍可按以往习惯来往。

第五条关于往来过境事宜,缔约双方同意两国外交人员、公务人员以及两国国民往来过境,除本条第一款、第二款、第三款、第四款另有规定者外,均应持有本国护照并经对方签证。

一、凡按习惯专门从事于中国西藏地方和印度之间的贸易的双方商人、依靠其生活的妻子及子女以及随从人员,仍按习惯在出示本国地方政府或其授权机关发给之证明书并经对方边境检查站查验后,得进入印度和中国西藏地方进行贸易。

二、两国边境地区居民,凡因进行小额贸易或探望亲友而互相过境往来,仍按以往习惯前往对方边境地区而不限于经过前述第四条所指定的山口和道路,并无需护照、签证或许可证。

三、由于运输需要而互相过境往来的背夫和骡夫,只需持有本国地方政府或其授权机关发给之定期的证明书(三月、半年或一年为期限)并在对方检查站登记即可,无需持有本国护昭。

四、双方香客均无需携带证明文件,但须在对方边境检查站登记并领取朝圣许可证。

五、虽有本条前述各款之规定,双方政府得拒绝个别人入境。

六、凡按本条前述各款进入对方国境者,在履行对方规定之手续后,始得在对方境内居留。

第六条本协定自双方政府批准之日起生效,其有效期为八年。

  本协定期满前六个月,如一方提出延长本协定之要求并得另一方同意后,得由双方谈判延长本协定事宜。

  一九五四年四月二十九日订于北京,共两份,每份均以中文、印地文和英文书就,中、印、英三种文字的条文具有同等的效力。

中华人民共和国中央人民政府全权代表 章汉夫

印度共和国全权代表 赖嘉文