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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • May 08, 1945

    Act of Military Surrender, Germany

    English text of the official act of military surrender to the Allied and Soviet forces signed by German High Command.

  • September 28, 1948

    Central Intelligence Agency Report, "Consequences of a Breakdown in Four-Power Negotiations on Germany"

    Summarizes Soviet objectives and strategies in entering into Four-Power discussions about Berlin and Germany.

  • December 10, 1948

    Central Intelligence Agency Memorandum for the President on the Situation in Berlin

    CIA Memorandum for President Truman on US position on Soviet actions in Berlin.

  • September 13, 1949

    Kennan Authorizes Russian Émigré Broadcasting Project

    George Kennan authorizes Frank Wisner to proceed with a central Russian émigré organization initially focused on émigré welfare and subject to US government policy guidance. Wisner directs Office of Policy Coordination staff in a cover memorandum to proceed with the project.

  • October 01, 1949

    Gromyko's diary entry of 1 October 1949

    Gromyko's entry of 1 October 1949, in his daily record, detailing his individual meetings with American Ambassador Kirk, British Ambassador Kelly, and French Charge d'Affaires Frankfort.

  • May 09, 1950

    Schuman Declaration at Salon de l'Horloge at the Quai d'Orsay in Paris

    In this speech, French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman reads a statement describing a shared organization that would manage French and German production of coal and steel. It served as a foundational moment for European integration and the future European Economic Community.

  • September 16, 1950

    Resolution of the Central Committee, September 16, 1950, to revise a diplomatic note on the question of general elections in Germany and Gromyko's note to Stalin on this matter.

    Gromyko’s 14 September 1950 note to Stalin about a diplomatic note to US, UK, and France on the process for general elections in Germany; and the Central Committee’s 16 September 1950 decision to seek revision of the diplomatic note.

  • November 22, 1950

    Wisner Update on Radio Free Europe

    Frank Wisner reviews RFE broadcasting after 5 months and notes a shift from use of exile leaders “of questionable current value” to “timely news items and commentary.” He foreshadows expansion of broadcast hours and shift of program production to West Germany.

  • July 16, 1951

    Report on Radio Free Europe

    Observations of BBC managers two months after the start of RFE broadcasting from Munich on May 1, 1951. It includes their analysis of the Czechoslovak Service broadcasts on May 26th, 1951, and of the network of field bureaus to gather information from refugees. They lauded the enthusiasm of RFE broadcasters but criticized their programs for mixing opinion with fact in newscast.

  • September 06, 1951

    CIA-State Department Reservations about Broadcasting to the Soviet Union

    Senior CIA and State Department officials review the August 21 OPC memorandum ["Office of Policy Coordination History of American Committee for Liberation"]. The State Department officials question whether disparate Russian émigré groups can cooperate enough to organize broadcasting to the USSR, while CIA director Walter Bedell Smith questions the cost of the project.

  • November 20, 1951

    CIA-State Department “Summit” Limits Scope of Radio Free Europe

    Assistant Secretary of State Edward Barrett reviews Free Europe Committee plans with Allen Dulles and other officials. The State Department vetoes startup of Radio Free Europe Baltic broadcasting on grounds that it would duplicate Voice of America broadcasts and insists that the Crusade for Freedom be toned down. Dulles subsequently rejects the latter point in a handwritten annotation.

  • February 17, 1952

    Report by Sir Robert Bruce Lockhart on his visit to Radio Free Europe, Munich

    Sir Robert Bruce Lockhart - head of the World War II Political Warfare Executive who later had a highly popular BBC weekly program in Czech - visited RFE with BBC Central European chief Gregory Macdonald between January 29 and February 1, 1952. Reviewing personalities, attitudes, and operations in Munich, Lockhart concluded that RFE had made progress in its first year, that its broadcasters were happy to be separated geographically from émigré politicians in the US, but that RFE faced the challenge of keeping the spark of hope alive in Eastern Europe without instigating revolt. It also faced the challenge of emerging German sovereignty, which Lockhart thought would force RFE to relocate to another country. Accompanying Foreign Office memoranda generally endorsed Lockhart conclusions. Information Research Department official F.C. Stacey cautioned that “the need for sensational stories of RFE activities” for the domestic US audience might result in irresponsible RFE broadcasts.

  • April 07, 1952

    Conversation between Joseph V. Stalin and SED leadership

    The second conversation between Stalin and the SED leadership during their trip to Moscow in April 1952. Stalin discusses the political and military situation in East Germany and asks about the status of economic development in the GDR. The SED delegation asks Stalin to approve the transfer of raw materials to East Germany.

  • October 09, 1952

    Record of S. Radhakrishnan’s Meeting with the FRG President

    Radhakrishnan discusses German unification with the President of West Germany, touches on India's independent stances on foreign policy issues in China, Japan, and Korea, and speaks at length about Russia's internal policies. Radhakrishnan summarizes a previous discussion with Stalin, in detail, discussing Soviet approaches to religion (compared with Indian approaches), and Stalin's strong denial of accusations of aggression: Radhakrishnan says that he is "convinced that Stalin and Russia are gripped by sincere fears of a Western attack." Radhakrisnan concludes by expressing his hope that Germany can unify.

  • January 02, 1953

    CPSU CC Resolution Approving the Deployment of Border Guards along the Eastern Border of the GDR

    CPSU CC Resolution Approving the Deployment of Border Guards along the Eastern Border of the GDR

  • February 11, 1953

    State Department Views of Radio Liberty Broadcasting

    The State Department comments on the January 22, 1953 CIA paper ["Radio Liberty Editorial Policies Defined"], raising the issue of likely restraints from West Germany when it regains sovereignty.

  • March 18, 1953

    Draft Instructions for General Vasilii Chuikov and Vladimir Semyonov regarding GDR Control of Borders

    Draft instructions of the Soviet leadership to its representatives in East Germany, advising that the SED requests for East German control of the border with West Germany are "unacceptable and grossly simplistic."

  • April 18, 1953

    Memorandum on the German Question, from Georgi Pushkin and Mikhail Gribanov to Vyacheslav Molotov

    Memorandum summarizing the state of discussions between the Soviet Union and the Western powers on various issues regarding Germany, including political, economic and unification issues.

  • April 18, 1953

    Memorandum from Ivan Turginov, 'On the Western Powers’ Policy regarding the German Question'

    Ivan Turginov reports on the policies of the Western powers on the German Question. Special emphasis is given to the public opinion in western countries with regard to Western and Soviet policies towards occupied Germany.

  • April 28, 1953

    Soviet Foreign Ministry Memorandum, 'Regarding Further Measures of the Soviet Government on the German Question'

    Memorandum on further issues regarding the German Question. The memorandum discusses further actions to be taken by the Soviet leadership in order to respond to developments in the Western controlled sectors of Germany and to increase Soviet influence with the German people.