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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • September, 1944

    Memorandum by George Kennan , 'Russia – Seven Years Later' (excerpt)

    George Kennan describes Stalin's character, underlining the importance of his nationality, ignorance of the west, and his seclusion. Kennan further warns that Stalin's advisors are not interested in collaborating with western democracies, and that Russia's internal police regime is developed beyond its foreign policy.

  • October 09, 1944

    Record of Meeting at the Kremlin, Moscow, 9 October 1944, at 10 p.m.

    Churchill, Eden, Stalin, and Molotov discuss the leadership in Poland, Britains interests in Greece and Hong Kong, the actions of Romania and Bulgaria during the war, Turkey, the need for the Great Powers to exert influence on the Balkans to prevent small wars, the leadership of Italy, interests in Bulgaria and Romania, the dividing of Germany and Germany's future, and the American plans in the war against Japan.

  • October 10, 1944

    Record of Meeting at the Kremlin, Moscow on 10 October 1944, at 7 p.m.

    Eden and Molotov discuss the post-war situation in the Balkans, the installment of a Control Commission to influence Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia and Germany as well as the dividing of these countries and which Great Power should exert control on each country.

  • October 13, 1944

    Record of Meeting Held at Spiridonovka House on 13 October at 5 p.m.

    M. Mikolajczyk discusses the Polish memorandum regarding the reconstruction and internal affairs of post-war Poland, Stalin reprimands Mikolajczyk for the extralegal approval of this memorandum. Churchill defends the memorandum, Stalin criticizes it, and Mikolajczyk emphasizes Poland's sovereignty as well as the legitimacy of the underground government in occupied Poland. Contentious discussion on the issue of the Curzon Line between Stalin and Mikolajczyk--Churchill acts as a mediator.

  • October 17, 1944

    Record of Meeting Held at the Kremlin on 17 October 1944, at 10 p.m.

    Churchill and Stalin discuss the progress of the war in Europe and its brutality. They propose three alternative plans of German dismemberment and how German assets should be divided among the Allies. They discuss further punishments and reparations.

  • May 02, 1945

    Memorandum by Sir Orme Sargent, Deputy Under-Secretary at the Foreign Office, to Winston Churchill

    Sir Orme Sargent suggests that the recent Soviet hardening towards Great Britain is due to the influence of Stalin's ministers; connects chilled relations with situation in Austria and Poland.

  • July 19, 1949

    Cable from Moscow to the Foreign Office

    The British ambassador to the Soviet Union and Stalin meet to discuss relations between their two countries. Conversation focused primarily on British intentions within NATO and reconstruction efforts.

  • June 05, 1951

    Secret Letter from Roger Makins to Michael W. Perrin

    Roger Makins of the British Foreign Office informs Michael Perrin, Deputy Controller for Atomic Energy, about negotiations between India and the United States and India and France for nuclear cooperation.

  • August 18, 1951

    Letter from F.C. How to Roger Makins

    F.C. How of the Ministry of Supply replies to Roger Makins of the Foreign Office regarding negotiations for British nuclear cooperation with India.

  • October 30, 1951

    Letter from UK Embassy in Paris to London on Franco-Indian agreement

    British Ambassador Oliver Harvey reports a conversation with the Director of the French Atomic Energy Commission Jules Guéron on the details of Franco-Indian nuclear cooperation.

  • January 25, 1952

    Letter from John D. Cockcroft to Homi J. Bhabha

    John D. Cockcroft, head of the British Atomic Energy Research Establishment, writes to Homi J. Bhabha, Chairman of the Indian Atomic Energy Commission, informing him that the British will not be assisting India with its beryllium experiements since India has already made agreements with the French Atomic Energy project.

  • February 17, 1952

    Report by Sir Robert Bruce Lockhart on his visit to Radio Free Europe, Munich

    Sir Robert Bruce Lockhart - head of the World War II Political Warfare Executive who later had a highly popular BBC weekly program in Czech - visited RFE with BBC Central European chief Gregory Macdonald between January 29 and February 1, 1952. Reviewing personalities, attitudes, and operations in Munich, Lockhart concluded that RFE had made progress in its first year, that its broadcasters were happy to be separated geographically from émigré politicians in the US, but that RFE faced the challenge of keeping the spark of hope alive in Eastern Europe without instigating revolt. It also faced the challenge of emerging German sovereignty, which Lockhart thought would force RFE to relocate to another country. Accompanying Foreign Office memoranda generally endorsed Lockhart conclusions. Information Research Department official F.C. Stacey cautioned that “the need for sensational stories of RFE activities” for the domestic US audience might result in irresponsible RFE broadcasts.

  • June 22, 1953

    Minute from Selwyn Lloyd to Winston Churchill, Reflecting British Perspectives on the Berlin Uprising

    Lloyd emphasizes Germany’s large role in the unification of Europe, and the importance of maintaining the sympathies of the West German population. He provides suggestions for how to proceed in Germany, and requests Churchill’s views on the matter.

  • April 21, 1954

    Letter from Roger Makins to Lewis L. Strauss

    Roger Makins of the British Foreign Office writes to Lewis Strauss of the American Atomic Energy Commission regarding a change in policy to allow Britain to share nuclear information with members of the British Commonwealth.

  • May 25, 1955

    Equipment for Radio Free Europe Studio in London

    The Foreign Office writes to the Treasury to ask it to reverse its denial to RFE of customs duties exemption for import of technical equipment for a new London bureau. RFE “deserves the full support of her Majesty’s Government,” wrote the Foreign Office, adding that a London bureau will enable better cooperation between the U.K. and RFE and facilitate its interviewing of East European refugees. The Foreign Office notes that RFE is not a commercial organization and “is in fact supported by US Government money contributed covertly.. For political and other reasons the US Government are unable to admit this ….”

  • June 24, 1955

    Report by Sir Bruce Robert Lockhart on Radio Free Europe

    Sir Robert Bruce Lockhart reports to the Foreign Office on his second visit to RFE (again accompanied by BBC Central European chief Gregory Macdonald) between July 5 and July 8, 1955. Lockhart positively evaluated broadcasts as more responsible than in 1952 and gave high marks to the content of the leaflets dispatched to Czechoslovakia by balloon and mail. He found staff unsettled by RFE’s change of status following the restoration of German sovereignty, did not think RFE could long survive in Munich, and would advise it to relocate of its own volition before it was forced out of Germany

  • September 15, 1955

    Visit to Radio Free Europe by NATO Officers

    Record of an informational visit to RFE by NATO military officers in the midst of a conference on psychological warfare. Attached are detailed descriptions of its operations that RFE provided to the officers.

  • December 21, 1955

    Report by Overton on his visit to Radio Free Europe in Munich

    Report by Foreign Office (IRD) official H.T.A. Overton on his visit to RFE between November 24 and November 27, 1955. The report is focused on RFE’s news and information operation and the balloon-leaflet operation. Overton viewed as RFE liabilities the extent of autonomy granted to its exile broadcasters, its non-official status, and its location in Bavaria. He notes an effort by Political Advisor William Griffith to encourage the national broadcast services to include more coverage of the Western world and to eliminate “the highly argumentative … script with no real substance to it.” Attached is an RFE summary of its Evaluation and Research Section and an RFE organizational chart.

  • 1956

    Visit to the United Kingdom of Bulganin and Khrushchev, 19-27 April 1956

    UK record of discussions with a Soviet delegation including Bulganin and Khrushchev.

  • February, 1956

    Report on Visit to Radio Free Europe, Munich

    Analysis of RFE news operations by BBC Central European Service director Gregory Macdonald, who visited Munich from January 8 to January 23, 1956, at RFE’s request. Accompanied by notes from the British Foreign Office and its Information Research Department. Macdonald had been asked by RFE officials to assess the objectivity and organization of the newscasts.