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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • 1955

    View of the Asian-African Conference from the Bogor Conference

  • January 04, 1955

    Minutes of Conversation between Premier Zhou Enlai and Soviet Ambassador Pavel Yudin regarding Dag Hammarskjold’s Trip to Beijing

    The Soviet ambassador brought to Zhou Enlai a telegram between the United Nations Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld and the UN Assistant Secretary-General. The telegram stated that Hammarskjöld was going to visit Beijing for negotiating the release of the US pilots who had served in the Korean War and been captured by the Chinese.

  • January 06, 1955

    Record of Meetings between UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold and Zhou Enlai

    Over a series of four meetings, Secretary-General Hammarskjold and Zhou Enlai discuss American prisoners in China, Chinese nationals in the US, and the US-Taiwan defense treaty.

  • January 10, 1955

    Cable from Feng Xuan, 'Reaction of Britain, United States, France towards the Kuala Lumpur Five Countries inviting China to attend the Afro-Asian Conference'

    The UK responded the decision of inviting China to attend the Asian-African Conference with anger, stating that countries in the Bogor Conference had wrong expectations toward China. The US feared that China would have great influence on the Asian-African Conference and thus weaken US influence in the region. The US and UK also worried that China’s participation would improve China-Japan relations. French press expressed this decision as the evidence of the failure of the US power in Southeast Asia.

  • January 13, 1955

    Soviet Translation, Supplement to Mardom Newspaper Published in Iran, 'The Crimes of Iranian Reaction and the Deeds of the Sons of the Fatherland are Becoming Clear to the Public Opinion of Iran and the Entire World'' (Attachment)

    This supplement appeared in the "Mardom" newspaper, which was published illegally in Iran by the underground communist Tudeh (People's) Party of Iran. This article presents criticism of the Shah and his forces that are accused of working with the Americans and the British and torturing Iranians who chose to stand in opposition against him. The People's Party of Iran also pledges to continue its fight against the Shah and the Americans.

  • January 14, 1955

    Soviet Translaton, 'A Brief Summary of the 19 December 1955 Issue of the Newspaper Mardom Nº 261' (Attachment)

    This is a summary of articles found in the "Mardom" newspaper, which was published illegally in Iran by the underground communist Tudeh (People's) Party of Iran. The issue summarized condemns the Shah as a traitor and as cooperating with the Americans and the British at the cost of the Iranian civilians.

  • January 14, 1955

    Soviet Translation, 'A Brief Summary of the 1 January 1955 Issue of the Newspaper Mardom Nº 261' (Attachment)

    This is a summary of articles found in the "Mardom" newspaper, which was published illegally in Iran by the underground communist Tudeh (People's) Party of Iran. This issue criticized the Shah's cooperation with the Americans and the British, as well as recent agreements regarding financial and border between Iran and the Soviet Union, creating what is said to be the basis of a friendship between the two countries.

  • January 16, 1955

    Report from the Chinese Foreign Ministry, 'Draft of the Tentative Working Plan for Participating in the Asian-African Conference'

    The note stated that the Asian-African Conference could be a great contribution in establishing international peace. Among the participants, there were Chinese allies, neutral countries, and American allies. China had to isolate American power in the Conference and befriend the neutral countries. The Chinese Foreign Ministry therefore drafted the plan accordingly.

  • January 21, 1955

    Cable from Liu Guanyi, 'Report regarding the Situation of the Asian-African Conference'

    Report on Indonesian public opinion about the upcoming Asian-African Conference.

  • January 22, 1955

    Record of Conversation from Premier Zhou's Reception of the Indonesian Ambassador Arnold Mononutu

    The Indonesian ambassador tells Zhou that the Indonesian government has sent out the letter of invitation inviting China to attend the Asia-African Conference. Indonesia hopes that PRC will send delegation to this conference and that the Chinese premier will visit Indonesia. Zhou Enlai expresses that after the Chinese government receives the official letter of invitation, the government will give official reply.

  • January 28, 1955

    Mao Zedong, 'The Chinese People Cannot Be Cowed by the Atom Bomb'

    Mao Zedong spoke to the Finnish Ambassador Carl-Johan Sundstrom on the history of Chinese wars with European powers and states that China and Finland have had friendly relations. He then addressed the possibility of the U.S. waging an atomic war over Taiwan and how Chinese would respond. Finally, Mao foreshadowed the downfall of U.S. and British ruling classes to the end of tsarist Russia and Chiang Kai-shek should the United States enter another world war.

  • January 31, 1955

    Cable from Huang Zhen, 'The Soviet Ambassador Came to Visit and Told Me the Following Issues'

    The Soviet ambassador to Indonesia reported that when delegations discussed before the Bogor Conference whether to invite China to the Asian-African Conference, the Indian ambassador opposed because inviting China would cause the Western countries to consider that Indonesia had aligned with one of the two blocs in the world.

  • January 31, 1955

    Address by Zhou Enlai at the Plenary Session of the Fourth Meeting of the State Council (Excerpt)

    Zhou Enlai addresses the State Council citing a need for China to "master atomic energy." The Chinese program is far behind in this area, but plans to catch up with the help of Soviet technical assistance.

  • February 12, 1955

    Cable from Huang Zhen, 'Discussion of Issues relating to the Asian-African Conference during the Meeting with Sidik'

    The Ambassador to Indonesia reports on a meeting with Sidik Djojosukarto, the leader of the Indonesian National Party (PNI), regarding the Asian-African conference, Indonesian politics, and Sidik's possible visit to China.

  • February 28, 1955

    Report by the Measurement Lab of the USSR Academy of Science, 'On the Properties of the Atomic Bombs Detonated on the Marshal Islands in 1954'

    Soviet scientific intelligence report on U.S. nuclear weapons testing on the Marshall Islands in 1954. This report concludes that the Ivy Mike and Castle nuclear detonations were thermonuclear based on gamma ray spectroscopy of fission fragments collected by Soviet aircraft over the USSR and PRC.

  • March 08, 1955

    Report from the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Trade, 'Plan for Our participation in theTtrade Activities of the Asian-African Conference (Draft)'

    The Department of International Trade estimated that the Asian-African Conference would be a good occasion to strengthen economic and trade relations with the participating countries. The Department of International Trade therefore made the recommendations to befriend with these former colonies for developing strong economic and political relations.

  • March 12, 1955

    Report from the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Trade, 'Scheme for Our Participation in the Trade Activities of the Asian-African Conference (Revised Draft) (Preliminary Paper)'

    The Department of International Trade estimated that the Asian-African Conference would be a good occasion to strengthen economic and trade relations with the participating countries. The Department of International Trade therefore made the recommendations to befriend with these former colonies for developing strong economic and political relations. This is the modified version of the draft plan that was issued earlier.

  • March 25, 1955

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Indonesia, 'What the United States is Doing to Indonesia prior to the Asian-African Conference'

    Report on United States attempts to influence Indonesia and improve relations prior to the Asian-African Conference.

  • March 27, 1955

    Report from the Chinese Foreign Ministry, 'Compilation of the Excerpts of the Telegrams Concerning the Asian-African Conference'

    The collection of telegrams covers the procedure and agenda about the Asian-African Conference, the arguments about China’s participation in the Conference, the attempts of the US and the UK to influence the Conference, and the attitudes of various countries toward the Conference.

  • March 28, 1955

    Report on a Trip to Vietnam

    Choi Duk Shin and Young P. Lee summarize their travels through Hong Kong, Bangkok, and Vietnam, including their discussions on politics, military situations, cultural sharing, and strategies for Free Asia to join together against Communism.