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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • January 01, 1962

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in India, 'Overview of India’s Foreign Relations in 1961'

    The Chinese Embassy in India reported on Indian foreign relations for the year 1961. In the report, the following issues are mentioned: Indian dependence on the United States, capitalism, opposition to China and communism, imperialism, and Indian-Pakisti relations.

  • January 17, 1962

    Entry from the Journal of Soviet Ambassador to India I.A. Benediktov

    Journal entry by Benediktov describing a conversation with Secretary of the National Council of the Communist Party of India, Bhupesh Gupta. During the conversation, Gupta urgently requests Soviet financial aid for the Indian party for use in an upcoming election campaign; the answer conveyed by Benediktov ten days later suggests that the Soviets responded positively to the request, although the amount is not indicated.

  • January 27, 1962

    Entry from the journal of Soviet ambassador to India Benediktov, conversation with the Secretary of the National Council of the Communist Party of India

    Journal entry by Benediktov describing a conversation with Secretary of the National Council of the Communist Party of India, Bhupesh Gupta. Benediktov met with Gupta again on 27 January 1962 (as the Soviet envoy recorded in his diary four days later).

  • March 01, 1962

    Note given by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Peking, to the Embassy of India in China, 1 March 1962

  • March 08, 1962

    Summary of Conversation between Premier Zhou Enlai and Pakistan’s Ambassador to the PRC, Rashidi (Excerpt)

    Zhou Enlai and Ali Muhammad Rashidi discuss the disputes between Pakistan and India and Afghanistan, and China's positions in those conflicts.

  • April 21, 1962

    Chinese Foreign Ministry, Presentation of Diplomatic Note to India Concerning Indian Military Personnel’s Encroachment on Chinese Territory

    The Chinese Foreign Ministry alleges that Indian military personnel have entered into Xinjiang and demands that India cease from dispatching troops into Chinese territory

  • April 25, 1962

    Rajya Sabha Q&A on the Export of Nuclear Weapons and Proliferation

    Transcript of questions and answers between members of the Rajya Sabha and the Minister of State in the Ministry of External Affairs, Shrimati Lakshmi Menon, on the Indian government's opposition to United States export of nuclear weapons.

  • May 11, 1962

    Lakshmi Menon's Statement Before Rajya Sabha on the Swedish Resolution on Non-Dissemination of Nuclear Weapons

    Transcription of Lakshmi Menon's statement on the Swedish Resolution on Non-Dissemination of Nuclear Weapons and India's position on the resolution.

  • June 19, 1962

    Fifth Official Meeting Between the Delegation of the Albanian Labor Party and the Delegation of the Chinese Communist Party

    Albanian leaders Hysni Kapo and Ramiz Alia meet with a Chinese delegation to discuss industrialization in Communist countries, specificallyAlbania's five-year plan. The Albanians complain about being excluded from international meetings of the socialist countries. The Chinese update the Albanians on their position of supporting Jiang Jieshi over the "Two Chinas" objective of the United States and their relations with other countries throughout Asia, while encouraging the Albanians to reach out to the Muslim nations of Africa.

  • July 21, 1962

    Note given by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Peking, to the Embassy of India in China, 21 July 1962

  • September 01, 1962

    Record of Conversation following Pakistani Ambassador to the PRC Raza’s Presentation of Credentials to Liu Shaoqi’s

    Liu Shaoqi and N.A.M. Raza discuss the Sino-Indian border dispute, and criticize India for having "great power chauvinism."

  • September 05, 1962

    Pakistani Ambassador Raza Pays Formal Visit to Chinese Premier Zhou

    Zhou Enlai and Pakistani Ambassador Raza discuss Chinese and Pakistani relations with India, especially Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru's positions on Kashmir, Sino-Indian border disputes, and Sino-Indian interactions on Taiwan and Tibet.

  • October 10, 1962

    Entry from the Journal of Soviet ambassador to India Benediktov, Conversation with "Comrade E"

    Journal entry by Benediktov describing a conversation with the charge d'affairs of the Chinese Embassy in India, Comrade E Cheng-Cheng, referred to as "Comrade E." in the document. In the conversation, the Chinese official gave Beijing's version of the building Sino-Indian border confrontation, blaming India for attacking Chinese posts along the border, and asserting that India had "gone too far" to resume normal relations with the PRC. Ten days later, China launched a broad attack on Indian positions along the disputed frontier.

  • October 11, 1962

    Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Presidium Protocol 58

    Protocol 58 provides insight into what was occupying the mind of Khrushchev at the time of the Cuban Missile Crisis. The theme of the meeting was centered around the Sino-Indian conflict, questions surrounding the McMahon line, and the future of Tibet. With the focus on China and India, it is reasonable to assume that the crisis caught Khrushchev by surprise.

  • October 12, 1962

    Memorandum of Conversation between Chinese Ambassador to Cuba Shen Jian and Member of the Cuban Integrated Revolutionary Organizations Emilio Aragonés

    Shen Jian and Emilio Aragonés discussed the Sino-Indian border disputes, in which both questioned the attitude of the USSR toward India. The other talking points include the attitude of the socialist world toward Yugoslavia and the revolutionary movements in Latin America.

  • October 14, 1962

    Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Presidium Protocol 59

    Protocol 59 further details the focus of the Soviet Union just before the Cuban Missile Crisis. Khrushchev was so confident that his plan with Cuba would go unhindered that he spent his efforts on resolving the Sino-Indian border conflict, thinking the matter with missiles was done.

  • October 20, 1962

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Pakistan, 'Minutes of the Conversation Between the Chinese Ambassador Ding Guoyu and Pakistan’s Foreign Affairs Secretary on the Sino-Indian Border Clash'

    The two discussed Pakistan's view toward the Sino-Indian conflict. Pakistan sympathized with China and thought that India "deserved to be taught a lesson". Islamabad regarded Nehru as a liar who was ostensibly neutral, anti-colonialist and anti-imperialist but in fact signed secret treaties with the US. Both Chinese and Pakistani representatives agreed to strive to resolve peacefully the border issue between Beijing and Islamabad.

  • October 22, 1962

    Soviet Reply to the Memorandum of Conversation between Premier Zhou Enlai and the Soviet Ambassador on the Sino-Indian Border Issue on 8 October 1962

    The Soviet Union outlines its stance toward the ongoing Sino-Indian border war, including its policy of selling arms to India.

  • October 22, 1962

    Memorandum of Conversation between Chinese Vice Foreign Minister Zhang Hanfu and Soviet Ambassador Stepan Chervonenko

    Stepan Chervonenko and Zhang Hanfu discuss the ongoing border dispute between India and China, and Chervonenko presents a Soviet memorandum outlining the USSR's stance toward the war.

  • October 23, 1962

    Soviet Memorandum on the Sino-Indian Border Issue

    The Soviet Union reiterates its support for China and blames the border dispute on imperialists and reactionary Indians.