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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • 1962

    The Algerian Problem: Comparison with the Chinese Struggle

    Document comparing the Algerian struggle against France with that of China, arguing that the Algerian struggle cannot be compared, and is much more difficult than that of the Chinese. Asserts that Algerian situation is unique and unprecedented, in terms of colonized struggles, and that the Algerian revolution both represents, more generally, Africa's revolutionary hopes and that it has gained the support of communists, who hope to see Western powers swept from the African continent. Concludes by saying that Algeria's success rests on two factors; the FLN, and foreign support from anti-colonial forces from around the world.

  • January 02, 1962

    Telegram from Polish Embassy in Havana (Jeleń), 2 January 1962

    There is an opinion among a small group of the heads of Latin American diplomatic posts that the US would push through the sanctions against Cuba, except for the military ones, as far as possible.

  • January 18, 1962

    Note to the GPRA Minister of Foreign Affairs, ‘Mission to Cuba'

    Report from Lakhdar Brahimi -- GPRA representative at celebration of Cuban revolution in Havana -- on meeting with Fidel Castro and Che Guevara, both of whom express considerable interest in Algerian revolution. Fidel Castro pledges Cuban support, both material and diplomatic, advises Algeria on how to proceed in negotiations with France, and strongly encourages the opening of an Algerian diplomatic mission in Cuba. Brahimi concludes with recommendations on how best to respond to Cuban suggestions and an outline of potential strategic benefits from a diplomatic relationship between two countries.

  • January 31, 1962

    Research Memorandum REU-25 from Roger Hilsman to Mr. Kohler, 'European Attitudes on Independent Nuclear Capability'

    Concerns about the credibility of US nuclear deterrence generated Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) General Lauris Norstad’s proposal for a NATO-controlled medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) force. This lengthy report represented INR’s assessment of “present and future European interest in national or multinational nuclear weapons capabilities,” including the MRBM proposal, and the extent to which an “enhancement of NATO's nuclear role” could “deter national or multinational European nuclear weapons programs.”

  • January 31, 1962

    Socialist Unity Party of Germany Central Committee (SED CC) Department of International Relations, 'Position on the publications about the Meeting of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Cuba [CPC]'

    On 29 and 30 January 1968 the central organ of the Cuban CP, “Granma,” published the speech given by Comrade Raoul [Raúl] Castro, second secretary of the CC of the CPC, at the 3rd meeting of the CC (24-26 January 1968). In this speech, comrades from the CPSU, the SED, and the CPCz were directly attacked in connection with the measures of the CC against a “micro faction” and openly accused of conspiracy against the Cuban party leadership and of collaboration with the penalized Cuban comrades.

  • February 21, 1962

    Research Memorandum RSB-58 from Roger Hilsman to the Secretary, 'Probable Soviet Reaction to Establishment of Multilateral NATO-Controlled MRBM Force'

    As discussion of a NATO multilateral force (MLF) unfolded, unfolded, one question which had to be addressed was how the Soviet Union would respond to the creation of such a NATO force. Because a NATO force would increase Western military capabilities, Soviet opposition was assumed.

  • February 27, 1962

    Note on the Discussion between Khrushchev and Ulbricht in Moscow on 27 February 1962 (Excerpts)

    Discussion of economic planning in East and West Germany.

  • March 01, 1962

    Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs Foy Kohler, 'Secretary McNamara’s Views on Nuclear Sharing'

    Secretary of Defense McNamara and his Deputy Gilpatric discuss whether assisting the French with missile technology would advance their nuclear weapons program. They speculate that it will help indirectly, missile aid would reduce the cost of the French missile research program and those saving could be directed to warhead production.

  • March 09, 1962

    Memorandum of Telephone Message from Foy D. Kohler to Paul H. Nitze and Roswell L. Gilpatric

    Instructions for Roswell Gilpatric and Paul Nitze from Secretary of State Rusk for negotiations with the French. Among the topics which the US representatives should not discuss are missile sharing and a common Western nuclear force.

  • March 12, 1962

    Alexei Adzhubei's Account of His Visit to Washington to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

    Alexei Adzhubei, Khrushchev’s son-in-law and the editor-in-chief of Izvestia, reports on his meetings with US journalists and officials in Washington, DC. Especially significant was his 30 January meeting with President John F. Kennedy in which Kennedy compared the communist revolution in Cuba with the 1956 Hungarian Revolution suppressed by the Soviet Union. Adzhubei also described Kennedy's comments on German reunification.

  • March 16, 1962

    Hungarian Embassy in Havana (Beck), Report on the Federal Republic of Germany and Cuba

    Ambassador János Beck reports on diplomatic relations between the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and Cuba. Beck speculates that FRG does intelligence work for departed Americans. Central to Beck’s report is the fact that Cuba wants to preserve diplomatic relations with as many countries as possible. Relevant is the Hallstein principle and the presence of FRG diplomats and German Democratic Republic’s Political Commission. (There are two self-governing and independent German states in Cuba.)

  • March 29, 1962

    Report, Embassy of Hungary in North Korea to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry

    Report on a conversation between GDR Provisional Chargé d’Affaires Stark and Com. Pak, head of the North Korean Foreign Ministry’s First Department. The two compared divided Germany with divided Korea.

  • April 02, 1962

    Message from the Italian Communist Party to the Cuban Leadership

    The Italian Communist Party sends a message to the Cuban government expressing their hope that the Organization of American States (OAS) will begin to see the Cuban perspective and that "the decisions of the OAS cannot suspend the Cuban truth from the American continent."

  • May 28, 1962

    Memorandum by Edward Biegel, Bureau of Western European Affairs, 'WE Answers to the Ball Questionnaire'

    Edward Biegel of the Bureau of Western European Affairs answers Undersecretary Ball's questions on French nuclear ambitions and Western European collective security. He makes the arguments against nuclear sharing, and also mentions the fact that a Baltimore Sun article likely alerted the Soviets to the fact that the US deployed tactical nuclear weapons on the German front.

  • August 28, 1962

    Conversation of Cde. N. S. Khrushchev and acting United Nations Secretary General U Thant, 28 August 1962

    Khrushchev and Thant discuss the possibility of a visit by Khrushchev to the UN General Assembly. Khrushchev says a visit is not likely until the Americans, French, British and Germans are ready to negotiate a solution to the Berlin question. Khrushchev outlines the Soviet position and says that the Soviet Union will sign a unilateral peace treaty with the GDR if their conditions are not met. He says that the SU would agree to UN intervention and to a multilateral peace treaty, which would avert international conflict and war. Khrushchev suggests that the UN headquarters be transferred to West Germany due to high costs and discrimination in New York. He identifies additional issues for discussion: the admittance of the People's Republic of China into the UN, the Taiwan-China issue, and disarmament. Thant and Khrushchev discuss the obstacles to resolution of the German question, including public opinion in America. They also discuss American dominance in the UN Secretariat, free trade, and the Common Market, among other topics.

  • September 04, 1962

    Research Memorandum RSB-152 from Roger Hilsman to the Secretary, 'Soviet Tactics in Talks on the Non-Diffusion of Nuclear Weapons'

    Before the words “nuclear nonproliferation” entered official discourse, the term “non-diffusion” (or “non-dissemination”) of nuclear weapons was used routinely. In part stemming from the negotiations over Berlin, during 1962-1963 the Kennedy administration held talks with allies and adversaries on the possibility of a non-diffusion agreement which included Germany. In light of a recent Soviet proposal, INR veteran Soviet expert Sonnenfeldt explained why Moscow had moved away from earlier proposals singling out West Germany and was focusing on the general applicability of a non-diffusion agreement.

  • September 12, 1962

    Letter from Dutch Embassy, Havana (Boissevain), 12 September 1962

    A letter from Gideon Boissevain, the Dutch Ambassador to Cuba reporting to Amsterdam. The letter primarily concerns the press coverage in Cuba of the rising crisis. Particular attention is paid to the Soviet guarantees of Cuban security and the American responses to the discovered missiles. In Cuba there is fear of an invasion by the United States making use of foreign legionnaires, despite Kennedy's claims there is no plan for an attack on Cuba.

  • September 21, 1962

    Letter from Dutch Embassy, Havana (Boissevain), 21 September 1962

    In this letter to Amsterdam, Dutch Ambassador to Cuba Boissevain remarks on how the American blockade of Cuba can effect Dutch trade in the Caribbean. He compares the situation to the one faced Japan and the Yellow Sea in the early 20th Century: Japanese control of the sea north of Shanghai strangled international shipping, and the British Navy was unable (or unwilling) to keep the Japanese in check. Boissevain decries the blockade of Cuba as foolhardy and says Washington risks losing the support of NATO over this.

  • September 29, 1962

    Italian Communist Journalist Carmine De Lepsis, Interview with Ernesto “Che” Guevara, Havana

    In an interview with journalist Carmine De Lepsis, Che Guevara discusses the future development of the Cuban economy, the improvement in productivity and the establishment of new labor laws, dealing with the exodus of technicians, and in general part of the lower middle class, and compares the situation in Cuba to Latin America in general.

  • October, 1962

    Dutch Prime Minister Jan E. de Quay, 23-26 October 1962

    Short diary entries from Dutch Prime Minister Jan E. de Quay during the Cuban Missile Crisis.