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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • January 31, 1958

    Report of the Hungarian Ambassador in Cairo on the establishment of the United Arab Republic and the Syrian public opinion in 1958 (exceprts)

    This report by the Hungarian ambassador in Cairo states that the Syrian people are wary toward President Nasser’s creation of the United Arab Republic, fearing he will enforce a dictatorship, however the Syrian communist party is in full support of the union.

  • June 03, 1961

    Telegram from the Albanian Ambassador in Iraq Ulvi Lulo to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    This document is a telegram from the Albanian Ambassador in Baghdad, Ulvi Lulo, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania dealing with the preparation of the upcoming conference of non-aligned countries. The ambassador writes that there are disputes among the leaders of the non-aligned states on the location of the conference. Nasser, Nehru and Castro ask for the conference to take place on the territory of their respective countries. In addition, Nehru requests that certain neutral Western countries such as Sweden, Austria, and Switzerland, should participate in the conference. According to Lulo, these Western countries are supporters of American policy.

  • June 26, 1964

    Report on the 1st and 2nd Conference of Non-Aligned Countries

    According to this report, the African and Asian countries were not satisfied with the 1st Belgrade conference and were trying to call what is known today as the 2nd non-aligned conference in Bandung. Tito and Nehru also reiterated the need for the 2nd conference of non-aligned countries in order to undermine the attempts of the former in initiating the effort. According to the Western press, Nehru took the initiative and sent his Vice-Foreign Minister, Dinish Sing, to Cairo and Belgrade where he met Nasser and Tito, both of whom were expecting him. Tito called for more participants from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. According to Tito’s recommendation, on March 23, 1964, in Colombo, Ceylon, the preparatory meeting was held on the ambassadorial level of Asian, African, and Latin American countries about the upcoming conference. The Soviet Union expressed its support for this conference in Soviet media. The report reveals the following to be discussed topics at the conference: peace, peaceful coexistence, resolution of disputes without the use of force, disarmament, etc. The Albanian government supports the conference of non-aligned countries in principle, but it does not show enthusiasm and avoids promoting the conference in Albania, in the media, and in the international arena. In addition, the report stresses that Albanian diplomats are ordered to follow the Ministry’s guidelines in order to maintain specific policies targeted at each Asian and African country individually.

  • May 26, 1966

    Report from the Hungarian Embassy in Cario on Kosygin's visit in the UAR

    This report describes the visit of Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin to the United Arab Republic (UAR) during which he reinforced positive relations with President Nasser and the UAR and discussed the Vietnam War, Sino-Soviet tensions, the Arab World, Israel, and economic concerns.

  • June 14, 1967

    T. Zhivkov’s Report at the Bulgarian Plenary Meeting on the Middle East

    Zhivkov presents the BCP position on the Six-Day War.

  • June 20, 1967

    On Soviet Policy following the Israeli Aggression in the Middle East

    Polish document describing the speech given by Soviet Leader Leonid Brezhnev to the Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CC CPSU) on the actions undertaken by the Soviet leadership before and during the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. Brezhnev tells the CC CPSU plenum that the Arab struggle in the Middle East has both a class struggle and a national liberation dimension. Brezhnev blames Israeli aggression for the start of the war and Arab blunders and low morale for the humiliating defeat of the UAR forces. Given the success of the Israeli Defense Forces, the Soviets were forced to consider diplomatic and political methods for saving the Arab leadership. When Israeli forces did not stop their aggression against Syria, threatening to overrun the Syrian capital of Damascus, Brezhnev claims tells the CC CPSU that Soviet leadership warned the Americans that the Soviet Army would have to intervene and, at the same time, threatened the Israeli that any further actions would result in Soviet involvement in the war. Brezhnev claims that, since the war ended just hours after the Soviets had made their threats, the imperialist powers acquiesced to Soviet demands. This documents is a translation of the version the Soviet leadership sent to the United Polish Workers’ Party for the information of the Polish leadership.

  • June 20, 1967

    On Soviet Policy following the Israeli Aggression in the Middle East

    East German Document describing the speech by Soviet Leader Leonid Brezhnev to the Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CC CPSU) on the actions undertaken by the Soviet leadership before and during the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. Brezhnev tells the CC CPSU plenum that the Arab struggle in the Middle East has both a class struggle and a national liberation dimension. Brezhnev blames Israeli aggression for the start of the war and Arab blunders and low morale for the humiliating defeat of the UAR forces. Given the success of the Israeli Defense Forces, the Soviets were forced to consider diplomatic and political methods for saving the Arab leadership. When Israeli forces did not stop their aggression against Syria, threatening to overrun the Syrian capital of Damascus, Brezhnev claims tells the CC CPSU that Soviet leadership warned the Americans that the Soviet Army would have to intervene and, at the same time, threatened the Israeli that any further actions would result in Soviet involvement in the war. Brezhnev claims that, since the war ended just hours after the Soviets had made their threats, the imperialist powers acquiesced to Soviet demands. This German translation of Brezhnev's speech was circulated to the SED leadership.

  • January 04, 1968

    Report by the Bulgarian Foreign Minister on the Ministerial Meeting in Warsaw on the Situation in the Middle East, 19-21 December 1967

    Ivan Bashev presents a report on the CPSU-organized meeting in Warsaw, where Eastern European government officials exchanged views on the situation in the Middle East. Among the discussed topics were the Arab-Israeli conflict, the Yemeni Civil War, and recent developments in Iraq.

  • September 21, 1968

    Telegram from Haxhi Lleshi to Gamal Abdel Nasser

    This document is a telegram from the Chairman of the Presidium of the People’s Council of the People’s Republic of Albania, Haxhi Lleshi, to the President of the United Arab Republic (UAR) Gamal Abdel Nasser. Lleshi declares in the letter that the Albanian government sees the situation in the Mediterranean as insecure. The factors that contribute to this state are the hegemony and forceful policies of the United States and the Soviet Union. He adds that both countries deployed their fleets in the Mediterranean. According to various sources, the Albanian government knows that the belligerent Soviet fleet is deployed in various sea bases in the UAR, a “freedom-loving” country and a friend of Albania. The Albanian people are ready to defend their sovereignty and, especially, their coastline from any aggression. Albania supported the struggle of the Arab people against the Israeli attacks of June 5, 1967. Lleshi expresses confidence that the government of the UAR will not allow the use of its ports as bases for aggressive actions against the People’s Republic of Albania.

  • April 22, 1980

    Minutes of Conversation between Todor Zhivkov and Yasser Arafat, Damascus

    The two leaders discuss the situation in the Middle East, and the role of the superpowers - the US and the Soviet Union.