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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • February 11, 1945

    Yalta Conference Agreement, Declaration of a Liberated Europe

    The text of the agreements reached at the Yalta (Crimea) Conference between President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill and Generalissimo Stalin.

  • March 05, 1946

    Churchhill's "Iron Curtain" Speech, "Sinews of Peace"

    Text of speech given by Churchill at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri in which he first used the phrase "iron curtain."

  • March 12, 1947

    Truman Doctrine, 'Recommendations for Assistance to Greece and Turkey'

    Truman's speech to Congress in which he laid the foundations of the Truman Doctrine by stating that the United States would support Greece and Turkey in order to prevent them from under the sway of the Soviet Union. This speech is often cited as the beginning of the Cold War, and US containment policy.

  • June 05, 1947

    The Marshall Plan, Speech by US Secretary of State George C. Marshall

    Speech in which George C. Marshall lays out the "Marshall Plan" for US aid to assist in the re-building of post-war Europe.

  • October 02, 1947

    Report from Bulgarian Intelligence on the Situation in the Mediterranean

    A report on the Western European military plans for fighting back a possible Soviet invasion. The report looks into the political climate in Italy and the public support for the plans.

  • March 26, 1954

    Molotov's Proposal that the USSR Join NATO, March 1954

    In this memorandum to the Soviet Presidium, Foreign Minister Molotov proposes that the Soviet Union publicly state its willingness to consider joining NATO. He explains that the proposal is intended to disrupt the formation of the European Defense Community and the rearmament of West Germany, and also limit the United State's influence in Europe.

  • December 07, 1954

    Department of State, Memorandum, 'Problems Involving the Satellites and Baltic Areas in Negotiations with the Soviet Union'

    Negotiation of a collective security or non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union would "arouse grave anxiety or cynical reserve" due to a number of problems.

  • May 14, 1955

    Warsaw Pact Treaty

    Treaty establishing the Warsaw Pact in response to the integration of West Germany into NATO.

  • May 28, 1962

    Memorandum by Edward Biegel, Bureau of Western European Affairs, 'WE Answers to the Ball Questionnaire'

    Edward Biegel of the Bureau of Western European Affairs answers Undersecretary Ball's questions on French nuclear ambitions and Western European collective security. He makes the arguments against nuclear sharing, and also mentions the fact that a Baltimore Sun article likely alerted the Soviets to the fact that the US deployed tactical nuclear weapons on the German front.

  • February 08, 1963

    Meeting Minutes, Council of Ministers of the Netherlands, 'NATO Defense Policy'

    These Council of Ministers minutes report on the meeting between Prime Minister De Quay and several of his state secretaries with NATO Secretary-General Stikker, who gave an outline of what was still called a ‘NATO Nuclear Force’. The prime minister responded positively to the plan but indicated the incoming cabinet would have to take a final decision. In the discussion, Minister of Foreign Affairs Luns comments on the attitude of President De Gaulle and points out that NATO and EEC matters ought to be viewed separately.

  • March 15, 1963

    Meeting Minutes, Council of Ministers of the Netherlands, 'Atlantic Nuclear Weapons Plan'

    The Council discusses the danger of the German Federal Republic moving to acquire an independent nuclear force. Minister of Foreign Affairs Luns regrets the American focus on the Germans at the expense of the British. Resistance from the French regarding the plan is not expected.

  • June 07, 1963

    Meeting Minutes, Council of Ministers of the Netherlands, 'NATO Council in Ottawa and Visit to President Kennedy'

    The Council of Ministers report on the NATO council meeting in Ottawa, which Minister of Foreign Affairs Luns and Minister of Defense Visser attended. Luns spoke privately with President Kennedy about the attitude of the French and the possibility of an independent German nuclear arsenal. Visser visited weapons centers in the United States and emphasizes the need to accept American leadership in the defense of Europe.

  • August 02, 1963

    Meeting Minutes, Council of Ministers of the Netherlands, 'Position Regarding NATO Multilateral Nuclear Force'

    Minister of Foreign Affairs Luns gives the new Marijnen cabinet a sketch of the multilateral NATO nuclear force situation so far. He is now of the opinion that the Netherlands should not join a multilateral NATO nuclear force. Minister of Defense De Jong says the Dutch government will need to take a position near the end of the year.

  • October 02, 1963

    Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Paper Regarding Dutch Participation in Talks Regarding a Multilateral Nuclear Force'

    Paper presented at 4 October 1963 meeting of the Dutch Council of Ministers. The paper lays out the reasons for declining to participate in the Multilateral Force so far, but argues that due to changes in the situation – principally a turn on the part of the British toward participation – the Netherlands now should move to participate in the talks. The paper lists the (political) advantages of such participation.

  • October 04, 1963

    Meeting Minutes, Council of Ministers of the Netherlands, 'Discussion of NATO Nuclear Force'

    State Secretary of Foreign Affairs De Block, standing in for Minister Luns, presents his ministry’s paper on Dutch participation in talks regarding the MLF. The paper lays out the reasons for declining to participate so far, but argues that due to changes in the situation the Netherlands now should move to participate in the talks. Objections from the Ministers of Defense and Finance as well as concerns over resistance in parliament lead most of the discussion to be tabled until the following meeting.

  • October 09, 1963

    Memorandum, Dutch Joint Chiefs of Staff, 'Regarding the Military Desirability of the Creation of a NATO Multilateral Nuclear Force"

    Memorandum presented at 11 October 1963 meeting of the Dutch Council of Ministers. The memorandum is highly critical of the military merits of the proposed NATO Multilateral Nuclear Force, and argues that even if the MLF is created, the Netherlands should decline to participate.

  • October 11, 1963

    Meeting Minutes, Council of Ministers of the Netherlands, 'Dutch Participation in Multilateral Nuclear Force Talks'

    Minister of Defense De Jong presents a memorandum from his joint chiefs of staff, the tenor of which he supports, which serves as the basis for an extended discussion. The memorandum is highly critical of the (military) merits of the MLF, but De Jong takes care to bracket his critique as coming strictly from the point of view of the Ministry of Defense. De Jong stresses that neither troops nor financial means can be made available for participation in the MLF. State Secretary of Foreign Affairs De Block proposes the formula: “to take part in the discussions on the clear understanding that it does not commit them [the Dutch] to participate in such a force.” Prime Minister Marijnen brings up a number of counterarguments to both military arguments against and political arguments in favor of the MLF.

  • November 22, 1963

    Meeting Minutes, Council of Ministers of the Netherlands, 'Talks Regarding a Multilateral Nuclear Force'

    The Council accepts the proposal of Minister of Foreign Affairs Luns to inform the involved governments that the Netherlands is making preparations for participation in the Multilateral Force talks. The Ministers of Defense and Finance object that the existing defense budget and conventional forces ought not to be slighted as a result.

  • February 14, 1964

    Meeting Minutes, Council of Ministers of the Netherlands, 'Multilateral Nuclear Force'

    The Council decides to participate in the NATO Multilateral Force test ship (the Mixed-Manning Demonstration, or MMD). Among the arguments that persuade the Minister of Defense is the danger of shifting the center of gravity to the German Federal Republic and the concomitant risk of giving Russia the impression that the whole project is a guise for providing the Germans with nuclear weapons.

  • June 19, 1964

    Meeting Minutes, Council of Ministers of the Netherlands, 'Multilateral Nuclear Force'

    Minister of Foreign Affairs Luns reports that the Secretary of State Rusk has asked him to explain the American position regarding the Multilateral Force (MLF) to Prime Minister Khrushchev on his impending visit to Russia. The main point is that the MLF is not intended to give Germany control over nuclear weapons.