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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • January 10, 1957

    Memorandum on the Warsaw Treaty and the Development of the Armed Forces of the People's Republic of Poland

    The Polish general staff analyzes the military obligations mandated by the Warsaw Treaty and how stated obligations are not compatible with Polish policy. Proposals for revision of the military articles of the Warsaw Treaty are outlined.

  • July 27, 1968

    Directive of the Ministry of Defense for Exercise ‘OVERCAST SUMMER-68’

    Directive describes how the military exercise Overcast Summer-68 ["Pochmurne Lato"] will transpire on August 1 on the border of Poland and Czechoslovakia from 28 July to 5 August 1968 and states the logistics of the exercise. Information includes what groups will be used, their commanding generals, equipment, and first aid materials. The document also details how communications between all parties involved will function, as well as signal words and numbers that are to be used under various situations. Directive is signed by Minister of Defense and General of Divisions, Wojciech Jaruzelski.

  • August 20, 1968

    Report No. 10 from Generals Pavlovsky and Kovalov to Brigadier General Florian Siwicki

    General Pavlovsky writes to the Commander of the Polish Second Army, Brigadier General Florian Siwicki. He lists preliminary steps in Operation Danube where the troops enter from Poland into Czechoslovakia.

  • August 20, 1968

    On the Troops’ State of Readiness

    Report given out by the Polish Army General Staff regarding the state of Polish combat troops for the intervention in Czechoslovakia. States that the armies are in full readiness and are ready to move toward Czechoslovakia at any time. An overview of the area in Czechoslovakia that they are invading is also given at length.

  • August 22, 1968

    Report on the Polish Second Army, August 22, 1968 at 7:00 AM

    Report states that Polish Second Army divisions are in good spirits and believe their mission to intervene in Czechoslovakia is a just cause. Report states that despite the good will of Polish soldiers, they face hostility from the Czech army and citizens alike. Report then states what actions should be undertaken.

  • August 24, 1968

    Report on the Polish Second Army division taking part in Operation Danube

    Report states there are no problems with the morale and political state of soldiers and officers of the Second Army, though the soldiers have faced open hostility from Czech citizens. Overall relations between Czech Army and Polish divisions are negative.

  • August 25, 1968

    Report from Political Board of Polish Second Army

    Report on the use of propaganda materials and how they have been distributed in Czech cities and villages. It also lists several incidents of hostility expressed by Czech soldiers/citizens towards Warsaw Pact soldiers.

  • August 26, 1968

    Report from the Second Army's Political Department at 19:00 hours

    Document continues reporting on relations between Czech citizens and Warsaw Pact armies as well as the state of Polish Second Army. Report describes propaganda dissemination in villages and cities as well as how unfriendly relations between Czech and Polish soldiers remain.

  • August 26, 1968

    Report from Polish Second Army’s Political Department at 7:35 hours

    Report praises soldiers of the Polish Second Army for their political maturity and high spirits but says that relations between Czech citizens and soldiers of Second Army are not amicable. On August 25th, the political branch of Second Army led a propaganda operation designed for Czech society and soldiers.

  • September 04, 1968

    Report Regarding the Implementation of the Second Phase of Operation Danube

    Chief of General Staff and Deputy Minister of National Defense General Chocha describes what steps need to be taken now that the Army is transitioning into the second phase of the "Danube" operation.

  • September 07, 1968

    Report from the Political Department of Polish Second Army on the emotional-political condition of the soldiers taking part in Operation ‘Danube’

    Report states the morale of soldiers taking part in Operation Danube is still good. But there is still no change in the unfriendly relations between Czech people and Warsaw Pact soldiers. The report describes how the Czech people are under the influence of revisionist and reactionary propaganda. It also details the conflict between Czech soldiers and Polish soldiers. It also gives an update of propaganda being broadcast through Czech radio stations.

  • June 06, 1979

    Operational Directive from a Military Exercise Performed from June 6 to June 13, 1979

    This document is a simulation of a Warsaw Pact response to a hypothetical NATO conventional attack on the GDR and the Baltic region. It provides pathways of assault with specific coordinates for naval maneuvers and specific objectives to be achieved on each day of hostilities. The United Baltic Fleet is supposed to make its way as quickly as possible to the North Sea. The ground counteroffensive first is to defend the GDR and then attack the FRG and advance along its northern coast to the border with the Netherlands and France. Other counteroffensive measures included: an amphibious landing on Bornholm and other Danish Islands, destroying aircraft carriers in the North Sea and disrupting the offshore oil platforms there. The document specifies exact villages and towns that are to be used as objectives for individual operations, and finally notes which types of units and existing divisions are supposed to participate in the counteroffensive.

  • February 27, 1980

    Memorandum from John N. McMahon to Director of Central Intelligence

    Memorandum of suggestions for Polish officials in case of national security threat.

  • February 27, 1980

    Memorandum from John M. McMahon to the Director of Central Intelligence, '[Redacted] Report'

    McMahon forwards a translation of a Polish-language document containing information on the Polish government's planning for "increased threat for Poland's security."

  • October 22, 1980

    Proposals Regarding the Introduction of Martial Law for Reasons of State Security and the Underlying Consequences of Introducing Martial Law.

    A proposal for instituting martial law in Poland, in response to the protest movement there. The document breaks down the powers granted to the government through martial law, and notes that the powers of some government organs will need to be broadened.

  • January 07, 1981

    Intelligence Information Cable, 'Validity of Polish General Dubicki's Comments to the Press about Alleged Soviet Troops Wearing Polish Uniforms'

    Assesses the validity of Gen. Leon Dubicki's allegations Soviet troops are wearing Polish uniforms in the implementation of martial law.

  • January 23, 1981

    Memorandum from John N. McMahon to the Secretary of State, Defense, and Director of National Security, 'Polish Ministry of Defense Drafting Plans to Utilize the Polish Military to Implement Martial Law'

    Sources reveal the Soviet-supported Polish government intends to declare a state of Martial Law.

  • February 11, 1981

    Memorandum from John McMahon to the Secretaries of State and Defense and Director of the National Security Agency, 'Polish Government Plans for the Possible Introduction of Martial Law'

    Translation of document discussing several barriers to the implementation of martial law in Poland. This includes opposition from the Polish United Workers' Party, response to counterrevolutionaries, and dry runs of implementing martial law.

  • March 12, 1981

    Memorandum from John McMahon to the Secretaries of State and Defense and Director of the National Security Agency, '[Redacted] Report'

    Translated document outlines an exercise for both the government and military of Poland to prepare for the implementation of martial law.

  • March 16, 1981

    Memorandum from John McMahon to the Secretaries of State and Defense and Director of the National Security Agency, '[Redacted] Report'

    Translation discusses public unrest after implementing martial law, including a rise in robberies and participation in resistance groups such as Solidarnosc. It also lists the military members involved in the decision making exercise.