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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • June 03, 1959

    Report of Conversation with the General Secretary of the CCP CC, Deng Xiaoping

  • June 03, 1961

    Telegram from the Albanian Ambassador in Iraq Ulvi Lulo to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    This document is a telegram from the Albanian Ambassador in Baghdad, Ulvi Lulo, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania dealing with the preparation of the upcoming conference of non-aligned countries. The ambassador writes that there are disputes among the leaders of the non-aligned states on the location of the conference. Nasser, Nehru and Castro ask for the conference to take place on the territory of their respective countries. In addition, Nehru requests that certain neutral Western countries such as Sweden, Austria, and Switzerland, should participate in the conference. According to Lulo, these Western countries are supporters of American policy.

  • June 07, 1961

    Telegram from the Albanian ambassador in Cairo, Delo Balili, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    The ambassador informs the Ministry that the conference of non-aligned countries is still in session, and is divided into three groups. Balili calls the first group “rightists”, which includes India and Yugoslavia among others. He calls the second group “leftists”, which includes Cuba, Guinea, Somalia, etc. The last group, according to Balili, are the “centrists” which include the United Arab Republic, Ghana, etc. In this telegram, Balili describes the contentions between the three groups.

  • June 10, 1961

    Telegram from Delo Balili to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    Balili writes that the location of the upcoming conference of non-aligned countries will be a contentious issue for the participants. The UAR and India have proposed Belgrade. This location is supported by the British and Americans.

  • July 17, 1961

    Memorandum of Conversation between Jozip Broz Tito and George F. Kennan

    Kennan reports on a conversation with Tito where they discussed the upcoming Belgrade Conference of Non-Aligned States.

  • July 26, 1961

    Report on the 1st conference of the non-aligned countries of September 1st, 1961 sent by Tahmaz Beqari, the Albanian ambassador in Belgrade, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    The conference of non-aligned countries in Belgrade was organized when Indonesia and other countries of Asia and Africa were attempting to organize a Second Bandung Conference. Tito and Nehru, trying to minimize the influence of China in the Asian and African countries, initiated a conference that they called the Conference of Non-Aligned Countries in Belgrade. The document discusses the 24 participating countries, the agenda, the proceedings, the different groups among the delegation and the two main documents that the conference adopted: the manifesto and the declaration. The manifesto, titled “The Danger from the War and the Call for Peace,” according to the Albanian ambassador, was adopted in a revisionist spirit, calling on Khrushchev and Kennedy to maintain peace. Meanwhile, the declaration criticized colonialism and imperialism. The Belgrade conference did not decide on any specific issues and did not reach any important conclusions. In Albania, a week after the conference, the journal “Zeri i Popullit” (Voice of the People) wrote an article in which it identified Tito as an agent of imperialism and stated that Yugoslavia was not an non-aligned country as it participated in the Balkan Pact.

  • August 01, 1961

    Telegram from Jovan Andoni, an official in the Albanian Embassy in Poland, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    Andoni reports that the advisor in the Cuban embassy in Warsaw had told him that he has not received any official information from the Cuban government and, according to him, Cuba would not participate in the conference of non-aligned countries in Belgrade.

  • September 04, 1961

    Telegram from the Albanian ambassador in Budapest, Edip Cuci, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    The Albanian ambassador reports that the Hungarian press published Khrushchev’s message to the Belgrade conference of non-aligned countries and excerpts of different speeches by participants of the conference. Hungarian television showed excerpts from the conference as well.

  • November 18, 1963

    Record of Conversation between Zhou Enlai, Chen Yi, and Head of Pakistan’s Delegation Participating in the PRC’s National Day Celebration, Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani

    Conversation between Zhou Enlai and Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani, representing Pakistan. The two discuss, at length, their criticisms of United States imperialism, pointing to, among other things, Algeria and French Indochina as examples of imperialism's impending fall. Zhou then explains to Bhashani the importance of holding an Afro Asian Conference before the upcoming Non-Aligned Conference, which Zhou views as an attempt by Nehru and Tito to "destroy the Afro-Asian Conference." Conversation concludes by discussing the Kashmir conflict.

  • June 26, 1964

    Report on the 1st and 2nd Conference of Non-Aligned Countries

    According to this report, the African and Asian countries were not satisfied with the 1st Belgrade conference and were trying to call what is known today as the 2nd non-aligned conference in Bandung. Tito and Nehru also reiterated the need for the 2nd conference of non-aligned countries in order to undermine the attempts of the former in initiating the effort. According to the Western press, Nehru took the initiative and sent his Vice-Foreign Minister, Dinish Sing, to Cairo and Belgrade where he met Nasser and Tito, both of whom were expecting him. Tito called for more participants from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. According to Tito’s recommendation, on March 23, 1964, in Colombo, Ceylon, the preparatory meeting was held on the ambassadorial level of Asian, African, and Latin American countries about the upcoming conference. The Soviet Union expressed its support for this conference in Soviet media. The report reveals the following to be discussed topics at the conference: peace, peaceful coexistence, resolution of disputes without the use of force, disarmament, etc. The Albanian government supports the conference of non-aligned countries in principle, but it does not show enthusiasm and avoids promoting the conference in Albania, in the media, and in the international arena. In addition, the report stresses that Albanian diplomats are ordered to follow the Ministry’s guidelines in order to maintain specific policies targeted at each Asian and African country individually.

  • August 06, 1964

    Memorandum of Conversation from the Meeting between Premier Zhou Enlai and the Algerian Ambassador to China Mohamed Yala

    Zhou Enlai and Mohamed Yala exchange views on the situation in Vietnam and across Africa, while discussing the Second Asian-African Conference and the Non-Aligned Movement

  • December 24, 1964

    K.R. Narayanan, 'India and the Chinese Bomb'

    K.R. Narayanan, Director of China Division at Ministry of External Affairs, writes that the explosion of the first nuclear bomb by China will alter the political balance of Asia and the world and development of nuclear weapons by India can be justified and beneficial for the country and the international system as well.

  • May 21, 1965

    Politburo Talk by Zhou Enlai on Receiving a Group of Central Military Commission Operational Meeting Comrades

    Speaking at the Politburo, Zhou Enlai explains how nuclear weapons capabilities have won China newfound admiration in the non-aligned world and instilled fear in the other nuclear powers, particularly the United States and Soviet Union.

  • March 23, 1967

    Bulgarian State Security Chairman Angel Solakov’s Report at a Bulgarian Communist Party Plenum

    According to the State Security Committee chair, Angel Solakov, there has been a major shift in the policies of the West towards the Soviet bloc. While during the 1950s military face-off was often considered an option, in the late 1960s such possibility has been largely ruled out. Consequently the US and their allies in Western Europe are focusing their efforts on fighting socialism around the world through peaceful means, such as strengthening economic and cultural ties with the Soviet bloc countries. This calls for a change in the strategy of the State Security Committee intelligence operations. Solakov also reports on the anti-Soviet activities of the Chinese and Albanian intelligence services across Europe.

  • June 28, 1967

    The Visit of the Czechoslovak President's Special Envoy, V. Koucki, to the UAR

    The document summarizes Czechoslovak Politburo Secretary Vladimir Koucki's conversations with UAR President Gamal A. Nasser, Vice President Zakaria Muhi al-Din,and Arab Socialist Union (ASU) Secretary Ali Sabri during his visit to the UAR. The conversations concerned the Arab-Israeli War of 1967 and the UAR's military and economic situation. Koucki draws three conclusions about the UAR's position, mentioning pressure from internal and external reactionary forces and the lagging national economy. The appendix contains a report on military issues raised during a conversation between the commander of the UAR armed forces, General Muhammad Fawzi, and General Miroslav Smoldash of the Czech delegation. Koucki attributes Egypt's defeat in the war to technical and tactical weaknesses of the military leadership. He recommends that Czech cooperation with the UAR include economic support, military training, and delivery of military equipment.

  • September 21, 1968

    Telegram from Haxhi Lleshi to Gamal Abdel Nasser

    This document is a telegram from the Chairman of the Presidium of the People’s Council of the People’s Republic of Albania, Haxhi Lleshi, to the President of the United Arab Republic (UAR) Gamal Abdel Nasser. Lleshi declares in the letter that the Albanian government sees the situation in the Mediterranean as insecure. The factors that contribute to this state are the hegemony and forceful policies of the United States and the Soviet Union. He adds that both countries deployed their fleets in the Mediterranean. According to various sources, the Albanian government knows that the belligerent Soviet fleet is deployed in various sea bases in the UAR, a “freedom-loving” country and a friend of Albania. The Albanian people are ready to defend their sovereignty and, especially, their coastline from any aggression. Albania supported the struggle of the Arab people against the Israeli attacks of June 5, 1967. Lleshi expresses confidence that the government of the UAR will not allow the use of its ports as bases for aggressive actions against the People’s Republic of Albania.

  • December 01, 1971

    Letters between Narasimhan and Ozbudun

    Ozbudun updates Narasimhan on the proposal of an agenda for full Red Cross negotiations, the ROK government's willingness to establish diplomatic relations with non-aligned countries that have relations with North Korea, and UNCURK's invitation to meet with the NNCS.

  • September 27, 1973

    Hungarian Embassy in the DPRK, Report, 27 September 1973. Subject: The DPRK and the Non-Aligned Summit in Algiers

    A Hungarian diplomat explains the DPRK’s objectives for the Non-Aligned Movement in 1973 and the passage of a resolution on the Korean Question at the Algiers Conference.

  • September 10, 1975

    Letter to the GDR Council of Ministers, 'Information about Recent Issues of PRC Domestic and Foreign Policy – Directives for the Code of Conduct of GDR Representatives towards the Representatives of the PR China'

    In the midst of China's apparent "struggle against Maoism," East German diplomats review Chinese foreign and domestic policies and the state of bilateral relations.

  • May 13, 1976

    Report from the GDR Embassy in the USSR, “Note about a Conversation between Comrade Bauer and Comrade Basmanov, Deputy Head of the 1st Far Eastern Department of the USSR Foreign Ministry, on 10 May, 1976.”

    Summary of a conversation between Comrade Bauer and Comrade Basmanov addressing the personality cult in the DPRK, the socialist development in the DPRK, the DPRK’s economy, the relationship between the Soviet Union and the DPRK. Basmanov, furthermore, compared the DPRK’s relationship with the Soviet Union to its relationship with the PRC.