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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • December 02, 1961

    Top Secret Bulgarian Communist Party Politburo Resolution on Arms Delivery to Cuba

    In a report to First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party, Todor Zhivkov, the Minister of Foreign Trade, Georgi Kumbiliev, reviews Cuba’s need for weapons and credit. Kumbiliev relays a weapons request for Latin American revolutionary movements and an extension of financial assistance to Cuba. Kumbiliev advises Zhivkov to respond to the Cuban government’s requests and consider providing surplus Bulgarian weapons free of charge and extending a 5-year-term loan to Cuba starting 1 Jan 1963.

  • 1962

    Address by V. V. Volsky on Trends in the Economic Development of Latin America

    Address at a Soviet conference on "The Problems of the National Liberation Movement in Latin America" circa 1962. Volsky discusses the problems of the Latin American economy

  • April 04, 1962

    Soviet Report on Cuban Proposal to Establish a Soviet Intelligence Center in Cuba

    Report on a conversation between the Cuban Minister of Internal Affairs Ramiro Valdez Menendez and the KGB representative in Havana regarding the former's trip to the Soviet Union. The discussion concerns a Cuban proposal to set up a Soviet intelligence center in the country, which the Soviets turned down.

  • April 14, 1962

    Soviet Report on Havana's Plan to Train Latin American Partisans

    Report on a conversation between the Cuban Minister of Internal Affairs Ramiro Valdez Menendez and the KGB representative on Havana's decision to organize the training of partisan groups in other Latin American countries. For the time being the Cuban would do this by themselves without the help of the Soviet Union. Valdez said that although Havana agreed with the principle of peaceful coexistence, that did not mean that they could not help their brothers in the neighbor countries.

  • June 09, 1962

    Soviet Report by Cuban Involvement in Assisting Partisans in Other Latin American Countries

    Report on a conversation between Fidel Castro and Soviet representatives. Castro believed that revolutionary situation has developed in all Central American countries (except Mexico) and a few South American countries. In his opinion, a slight push in the form of armed actions by partisans would rally the peasant masses and bring about regime change. The report also discussed Havana's low opinion of many Latin American Communist Parties. Cuba's bypassing these parties in interfering in the respective countries' affairs worsened the relations between them and Havana.

  • October 25, 1962

    Telegram from Soviet Ambassador to Cuba Alekseev to USSR Foreign Ministry

    Alekseev comments on the general attitude of the Cuban people in regards to the blockade and mobilization of the Cuban army

  • October 31, 1962

    Cable from Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko to USSR Ambassador to Cuba A. I. Alekseev

    Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko cables the Soviet Embassy in Havana that the Soviet leadership had decided to allow UNSG U Thant and his representatives to visit Soviet launchers sites in Cuba and verify that the launchers are being dismantled.

  • November 16, 1962

    Record of Conversation between Mikoyan and Ernesto 'Che' Guevara, Havana, 16 November 1962

    The conversation takes place soon after the IL-28 crisis, which gives Mikoyan a chance to patch up the relationship with trade agreements and promises of future aid and industrial cooperation. Near the end of the conversation, Guevara and Mikoyan discuss the theory of revolutionary struggle. Guevara shares his vision that “further development of the revolutions in Latin America must follow the line of simultaneous explosions in all countries.” Mikoyan cautions him, pointing to the Soviet experience and using the metaphor of the rebellion on the battleship “Potemkin.” Hinting at further disagreement ahead, he gently registers his disagreement with the Cuban leader’s drive to ignite revolution in the hemisphere.

  • December 05, 1963

    Soviet Embassy in Cuba, 'Cuba and the National Liberation Movement in Countries of Latin America' (excerpts)

    This report includes a criticism of the content in a published article by Ernesto Guevara, regarding the methodology behind the National Liberation Movement in Latin American countries.

  • December 12, 1963

    Memorandum of Conversation, Vladimir Koucky, Secretary of Czechoslovak Communist Party (CPCz) Central Committee, and Carlos Rafael Rodriguez, Head of Cuba’s National Institute of Agrarian Reform (INRA), Prague

    The memorandum includes topics discussed between CPCz Secretary Vladimír Koucký and Cuban government official Carlos Rafael Rodríguez. Rodríguez lists points of misunderstanding between Cuba and other socialist countries. Discussion topics include Chinese publications in Cuba, Cuba's unique approach to socialist revolution, the proposed nuclear-free zone in Latin America, and building socialism under various conditions (e.g. Islam's role in Algeria), among others. Rodríguez encourages more communication among socialist nations to prevent misunderstanding.

  • January 24, 1964

    From the Diary of A. S. Anikin, Record of a Conversation with the Ambassador of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic to Cuba, Cde. Pavlicek, 4 January 1964

    Pavlicek reports that Chinese representatives in Cuba have launched an anti-Soviet propaganda campaign, aimed towards all levels of the Cuban population. He mentions that many Cubans in favor of Chinese propaganda activity have expressed the opinion that China will support Cuban revolutionary activity in Latin America.

  • May 19, 1964

    From the Diary of N. A. Belous, Record of a Conversation with a Member of the Editorial Board of the Magazine 'Cuba Socialista,' Fabio Grobart, 13 May 1964

    Grobart discusses the question of potential attacks by counterrevolutionaries in Cuba. Prompted by further questioning, he discusses discrepancies and contradictions within the CPSU leadership, and controversy surrounding Che Guevara and his unique opinion on certain issues.

  • June 23, 1964

    Report by the Soviet Academy of Sciences Institute of Latin America, 'Mexico: Politics, Ideology, and the Economy'

    This detailed report discusses the ruling political parties of Mexico, it's foreign relations and economic ties.

  • December 10, 1964

    From the Diary of A. I. Alekseyev, Record of a Conversation with Argentinian Communist Party CC Secretary, Victorio Cadovilla, 25 November 1964

    Cadovilla informs Alekseyev about a conference of representatives of the Communist parties of Latin America, in which Cadovilla served as chairman. At the conference, each of the representatives discussed the revolutionary movement in their respective countries. Cuban representatives, Castro and Guevara, asked many questions and voiced their opinions regarding the movement, the USSR, China, and Latin American countries' role in the development of the Cuban revolution.

  • March 03, 1965

    Bulgarian Embassy, Havana (Kulbov), Information Regarding The Latin American Communist Parties’ Conference

    First Secretary of the Bulgarian Embassy to Cuba A. Hubenov describes a Latin American communist party conference held in Havana, November 1964. The parties secretly discussed their struggle against imperialism and the expansion of communist revolutions in Latin America and Cuba's assistance to that struggle. Conference deliberations included a discussion of the Sino-Soviet split and the fear of factions within the communist movement.

  • March 25, 1965

    Conversation between Raul Castro Ruz, and a Member of the Polish Politburo, Zenon Kliszko

    The conversation between Castro and Gomulka took place on the initiative of Castro. Parties discussed the following topics: (1) relations between the UPSR and the PUWP, (2) the issue of the legalization of the Cuban Revolution, (3) the Situation in Vietnam, (4) Cuba and the Current Situation in Latin America, (5) the position of the PUWP with regard to the conference of 81 parties, and (6) the attitude of the socialist camp towards Cuba.

  • March 31, 1966

    Embassy, Havana, Report on the State of the Cuban Communist Party

    In a report on the Cuban Communist Party, Bulgarian Embassy counselor S. Cohen discusses strengths and concerns with the Cuban goverment. The Cuban revolutionary movement debunked the theory of geographically determined fatalism, but also displays a strong dependence on the Latin American liberation movement (e.g. Jose Mari, Simon Bolivar) for inspiration instead of socialist principles. Cohen reports negative developments including the Cuban government’s growing ambition to rule the Third World revolutionary movement and strong belief in the Cuban armed struggle as a template for all national liberation movements. The Cuban delegation strongly endorsed armed struggle as the only means of socialist advancement at the Tricontinental Conference recently held in Havana. Bulgaria must remain close with the Cuban government to help it develop economically and mature politically.

  • June 08, 1966

    CC BCP Secretariat Secret Resolution Regarding Training Cuban Security Officers in Bulgaria

    The Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party approves the Cuban government’s request to train Cubans in counterintelligence, but not sabotage.

  • January 11, 1967

    Cooperation between the Czechoslovak and Cuban Intelligence Services

    The report introduces Czechoslovak's assistance in the Operation MANUEL after the isolation of socialist Castro regime. Cuba looked for alternative routes in Europe in order to promote and influence the revolutionary movement in Latin America. Czechoslovakia assistance in the operation is of a strictly technical nature and its intelligence service is doing its utmost to protect the interests of the country by securing all technical matters. The report says that terminating the assistance was not possible for both practical and political reasons-- all direct flights between Czechoslovakia and Cuba would be suspended and a drastic cooling off of relations between two governments. Czechoslovak's refusal in assisting the operation would be interpreted as a political decision to suspend assistance to the national liberation movement in Latin America countries. However, the reports says that the assistance of Czechoslovak intelligence service to the operation is in no way amounts to agreeing with its political content and constitutes a minor aspect of intelligence work. The Soviet intelligence was also involved in organizing the operation in Moscow and offered assistance to its Cuban counterpart.

  • November 07, 1967

    Complaint by [Government of] Brazil Regarding Czechoslovak Transport of Guerrilla Fighters from Cuba to Latin America

    Head of the 1st Administration of the Ministry of the Interior Josef Houska reports a complaint by the Brazilian government regarding to Czechoslovak assistance of transporting guerrilla fighters from Cuba to Latin America. Brazilian government issued an official warning that relations between Brazil and Czechoslovak could be deteriorated in connection with the support for Cuba. Houska says Brazilian officials' argument could be proof that Czechoslovak specially selected officials making technical arrangement for the transits belong to some section of the Czechoslovak civil service. However, the Czechoslovak authorities cannot be blamed that they go along with the activities of the Cuban Embassy in Prague, which controls the transport of the guerrillas since an embassy is entitled to engage in full diplomatic activities in a friendly country. Houska argues that the Brazilian government does not have conceret evidence for the direct accusation of Czechoslovakia. The position of the Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affairs could have been the result of pressure by ultra-reactionary forces in domestic policy which are concerned by the opposition activities in Brazil and abroad.