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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • August 22, 1955

    Memorandum of Conversation between the Soviet Ambassador to Egypt D.S. Solod and the director of the Prime Minister’s office, A. Sabri

    President Nasser criticizes the Israeli attack at the Gaza strip which involves Egyptian soldiers. He requests immediate military aid from the Soviet Union in case of future incidents by Israeli or British forces.

  • June 28, 1957

    Transcript of a CC CPSU Plenum, Evening

    The CPSU politburo discusses the effects of Molotov's foreign policy on Soviet influence in the Middle East. Molotov is accused of being adventurous, leading to a loss in prestige for the Soviet Union when imperialist powers forced Egypt to withdraw from the Suez Crisis.

  • October 02, 1958

    T. Zhivkov’s Report at the Bulgarian Plenary Session on the Middle East Crisis

    A report based on military intelligence information and on Zhivkov's conversation with the Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev.

  • June 14, 1967

    T. Zhivkov’s Report at the Bulgarian Plenary Meeting on the Middle East

    Zhivkov presents the BCP position on the Six-Day War.

  • June 20, 1967

    On Soviet Policy following the Israeli Aggression in the Middle East

    Polish document describing the speech given by Soviet Leader Leonid Brezhnev to the Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CC CPSU) on the actions undertaken by the Soviet leadership before and during the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. Brezhnev tells the CC CPSU plenum that the Arab struggle in the Middle East has both a class struggle and a national liberation dimension. Brezhnev blames Israeli aggression for the start of the war and Arab blunders and low morale for the humiliating defeat of the UAR forces. Given the success of the Israeli Defense Forces, the Soviets were forced to consider diplomatic and political methods for saving the Arab leadership. When Israeli forces did not stop their aggression against Syria, threatening to overrun the Syrian capital of Damascus, Brezhnev claims tells the CC CPSU that Soviet leadership warned the Americans that the Soviet Army would have to intervene and, at the same time, threatened the Israeli that any further actions would result in Soviet involvement in the war. Brezhnev claims that, since the war ended just hours after the Soviets had made their threats, the imperialist powers acquiesced to Soviet demands. This documents is a translation of the version the Soviet leadership sent to the United Polish Workers’ Party for the information of the Polish leadership.

  • June 20, 1967

    On Soviet Policy following the Israeli Aggression in the Middle East

    East German Document describing the speech by Soviet Leader Leonid Brezhnev to the Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CC CPSU) on the actions undertaken by the Soviet leadership before and during the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. Brezhnev tells the CC CPSU plenum that the Arab struggle in the Middle East has both a class struggle and a national liberation dimension. Brezhnev blames Israeli aggression for the start of the war and Arab blunders and low morale for the humiliating defeat of the UAR forces. Given the success of the Israeli Defense Forces, the Soviets were forced to consider diplomatic and political methods for saving the Arab leadership. When Israeli forces did not stop their aggression against Syria, threatening to overrun the Syrian capital of Damascus, Brezhnev claims tells the CC CPSU that Soviet leadership warned the Americans that the Soviet Army would have to intervene and, at the same time, threatened the Israeli that any further actions would result in Soviet involvement in the war. Brezhnev claims that, since the war ended just hours after the Soviets had made their threats, the imperialist powers acquiesced to Soviet demands. This German translation of Brezhnev's speech was circulated to the SED leadership.

  • November 09, 1967

    Polish Record of Meeting of Soviet-bloc leaders (and Tito) in Moscow

    Soviet bloc leaders discuss current UN resolutions being devised to deal with the Middle East crisis and unmask U.S. imperialism at work. They talk about the US's desire to forces Nasser out. They also discuss internal Israeli politics, with dovish president Eshkol pitted against hawkish Defense Minister Dayan. They agree that this may be the best chance to make the Arabs realize that a political solution, not a military one, is necessary to solve the Middle East crisis. Tito pushes for a common resolution of all socialist countries, not just the USSR.

  • January 04, 1968

    Report by the Bulgarian Foreign Minister on the Ministerial Meeting in Warsaw on the Situation in the Middle East, 19-21 December 1967

    Ivan Bashev presents a report on the CPSU-organized meeting in Warsaw, where Eastern European government officials exchanged views on the situation in the Middle East. Among the discussed topics were the Arab-Israeli conflict, the Yemeni Civil War, and recent developments in Iraq.

  • January 24, 1969

    Minutes of Todor Zhivkov – Indira Gandhi Meeting, Delhi

    The two leaders talk about Vietnam, the Arab-Israeli conflict, and the situation in Europe.

  • October 15, 1971

    Minutes of Conversation between Nicolae Ceaușescu and the Shah, Persepolis

    Description of conversation between Nicolae Ceaușescu and the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi regarding efforts to find a solution to the conflict between Israel and Egypt involving border disputes and the Suez Canal.

  • 1972

    Minutes of the Joint Meeting of the Bulgarian Central Committee, the State Council, and the Council of Ministers, on the Situation in the Middle East

    Todor Zhivkov reports on his recent visit to the Syrian Arab Republic and the Arab Republic of Egypt.

  • April 10, 1972

    Minutes of Conversation between Nicolae Ceaușescu and Abbas Massoudi, Vice-President of the Majlis, Bucharest

    Describes the conversation between Nicolae Ceaușescu and Abbas Massoudi, Vice-President of the Majlis, regarding the current situation in the Arab-Israeli conflict. Conclusion was that Egypt is ready to sign a treaty, but Israel has not welcomed any recent proposals. Both agreed that it is important for international community to help find solution to conflict.

  • December 11, 1973

    Gen. Dobry Djurov's Report to Todor Zhivkov: Some Deliberations on the October Middle East War

    A Defense Ministry report on The 1973 War. The report discusses the weaknesses in the Arab military strategy – lack of coordination, lack of serious commitment, insufficient mobilization of available resources, etc.

  • September 30, 1974

    Memorandum of Conversation between Todor Zhivkov and Hafez Al Assad

    The two leaders discuss the Middle East, the American involvement, and the shipment of Soviet weaponry to Syria.

  • March, 1978

    Notes on Yasser Arafat's Visit to Moscow in March [1978]

    Notes on a meeting in Moscow from March 6-10 between Yasser Arafat & the PLO Delegation and the Soviet government. Arafat was met by Brezhnev, Boris Ponomarev and Andrei Gromyko. Among the issues discussed were the situation in the Middle East, the Soviets desire for Palestine to counter Egypt's "capitulation" to Israel and the U.S. (which Arafat affirmed), tensions in Southern Lebanon and the PLO's increasing desire to further cooperation with Syria and non-Christian Lebanese groups.

  • September 20, 1978

    TELEGRAM 027.923 from the Romanian Embassy in Cairo to the Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    The Egyptian government would be grateful if the DPRK would adopt an official declaration supporting the Camp David Agreements.

  • September 22, 1978

    TELEGRAM 066.918 from the Romanian Embassy in Pyongyang to the Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    The DPRK supports the position of Egypt on the Arab-Israeli conflict.

  • November 14, 1978

    Notes on Yasser Arafat's Visit to Moscow in October 1978

    A synopsis of discussions between Moscow and PLO Leader Yasser Arafat that had occurred on October 29, 1978. The Russians expressed concern that Egyptian President Anwar Sadat has participated in peace agreements with Israel and the U.S. The Russians framed this as anti-Arab and assured Arafat that they supported Arafat and his "progressive" policies. The Soviet Union aligns itself firmly with the PLO and those in the Arab world that reject cooperation with the U.S. and Israel. Due to these discussions, the first joint Soviet-PLO communique was issued, which pleased the Palestinians.

  • March 27, 1979

    Revolutionary Command Council Meeting after the Baghdad Conference of 1979

    Saddam and his executive Revolutionary Command Council discuss the March resolutions of the Arab League, which included the expulsion of Egypt and the cutting diplomatic ties due to its peace treaty with Israel.

  • April 22, 1980

    Minutes of Conversation between Todor Zhivkov and Hafez Al-Assad, Damascus

    The two leaders talk about recent developments in the Middle East, US-Arab relations, and Soviet support for Arab regimes.