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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • August 27, 1947

    Minutes of the Tenth Session of the Brazilian National Security Council, Alvaro Alberto’s proposal to establish a Brazilian Atomic Energy Program

    The minutes describe the internal discussion at the National Security Council of a proposal to establish a nuclear program sent from New York by Admiral Alvaro Alberto, who was representing Brazil at the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission (UNAEC). The Council approved the Admiral’s proposal and one of its members, Colonel Bernardino Corrêa de Matos Netto declared that "it is not convenient that Brazil relinquishes [nuclear energy], because it is necessary to prepare the ground for future generations."

  • August 30, 1956

    Minutes of the Twentieth Session of the Brazilian National Security Council, Second Brazilian Nuclear Plan

    At this meeting the National Security Council decided to reform the Brazilian nuclear sector by placing it under the direction of CNEN (National Nuclear Energy Commission). The CSN suggested young technicians and academics should be instructed abroad in order to stimulate the development of professionals in that field. One of the objectives of the nuclear policy was the production of nuclear fuel from domestically-sourced minerals. The Brazilian government criticized the monopoly on nuclear fuel by the big powers.

  • May 31, 1957

    Department of State Office of Intelligence Research, 'OIR Contribution to NIE 100-6-57: Nuclear Weapons Production by Fourth Countries – Likelihood and Consequences'

    This lengthy report was State Department Bureau of Intelligence and Research's contribution to the first National Intelligence Estimate on the nuclear proliferation, NIE 100-6-57. Written at a time when the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom were the only nuclear weapons states, the “Fourth Country” problem referred to the probability that some unspecified country, whether France or China, was likely to be the next nuclear weapons state. Enclosed with letter from Helmut Sonnenfeldt, Division of Research for USSR and Western Europe, to Roger Mateson, 4 June 1957, Secret

  • October 27, 1962

    Telegram from Yugoslav Embassy in Rio de Janeiro (Barišić) to Yugoslav Foreign Ministry

    A telegram from the Yugoslav Embassy in Rio de Janeiro to the Yugoslav Foreign Ministry about a meeting with Brazilian President João Goulart. Barišić says Goulart considers that everything must be done to prevent the beginning of war, because war would bring unpredictable catastrophe and it would be hard to extinguish it if war operations start. Goulart also shares his opinion that negotiations are necessary, and that Cuba must be prevented from becoming an atomic base for it could be the constant cause of war dangers.

  • November 02, 1962

    Telegram from Yugoslav Foreign Ministry, Belgrade, to Yugoslav Embassies in Havana and Washington and the Yugoslav Mission to the United Nations, New York

    The Yugoslav Foreign Ministry relays to its embassies a summary of the Brazilian proposal on the Cuban Missile Crisis which, they say, mainly includes: the denuclearization of Latin America with inspections, Cuba's commitment to not "export" revolutionary operations, and guarantees to Cuba for sovereignty and independence. Allegedly, Castro welcomed the idea of the above plan. Brazil thinks that the USA could accept it after negotiations.

  • November 07, 1962

    Letter from Arie Meyron, Counselor, the Embassy in Rio de Janeiro, to the Head of the Latin American Desk at the Israeli Foreign Ministry, 'Brazil-Cuba'

    A letter from Arie Meyron, a Counselor at the Embassy in Rio de Janeiro, to the Head of the Latin American Desk at the Israeli Foreign Ministry about Cuba-Brazil relations and about Brazil's proposal to the Organization of American States (OAS) to create a nuclear-free zone in Latin America.

  • November 14, 1962

    Telegram from the Brazilian Embassy in Havana (Bastian Pinto), 12:15 p.m., Wednesday

    A conversation between Pinto and Raul Roa discussing denuclearization of Latin America and the dismantling of bases like Guantanamo. Pinto also writes that the denuclearization of Africa was an initiative of Fidel Castro in the UN in 1960, and he praised the Brazilian draft, saying that, with the Cuban amendments, it would be an effective guarantee for Latin America and an important step toward disarmament and the suspension of nuclear tests.

  • November 16, 1962

    Telegram from the Brazilian Foreign Ministry to the Brazilian Delegation at the United Nations General Assembly, New York, 9 p.m., Friday

    The Brazilian delegation to the United Nations General Assembly advises the Brazilian government not to postpone the voting on the draft resolution about the denuclearization of Latin America.

  • November 16, 1962

    Israeli Foreign Ministry, Jerusalem, to Israeli Embassy, Havana

    Israeli Ambassador to Brazil Arie] Eshel sent a telegram from Rio about Brazil's efforts to mediate the Cuban crisis, as well as Brazil's attempt to pass a resolution at the Security Council declaring Latin America, Africa and the Middle East nuclear free zones but that they were unable to do so due to French opposition.

  • March 28, 1964

    Airgram from the Embassy of the US in Rio De Janeiro to the Department of State, 'Non-Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy by Brazil'

    The US Embassy in Rio De Janeiro sends airgram to the Department of State regarding military pressure in Brazil to produce fissionable material for nonpeaceful purposes.

  • July 06, 1967

    Argentina Naval Intelligence Service, 'Brazil: Prospects in the Field of Nuclear Energy'

    This is an Intelligence Report regarding Brazil’s nuclear activities prepared by the Argentine Navy, which seeks to estimate Brazil’s nuclear intentions in the near future. It is mainly based on newspaper articles as well as declarations of Brazilian high-ranked scientists, diplomats and military officials.

  • October 04, 1967

    Minutes of the Fortieth Session of the Brazilian National Security Council

    Guidelines for the Brazilian nuclear policy in Costa e Silva’s government (1967-1969) and defines the diplomatic attitude of Brazil regarding the negotiations of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). During the meeting of the National Security Council, participants agreed on the need to cooperate with another country to start a national nuclear program. On the NPT negotiations, the members of the National Security Council agreed to establish a condition to adhere to the Treaty: the defense of the right to develop peaceful nuclear explosions. Several ministers defended the possibility of using nuclear energy in the future for international security reasons.

  • March 23, 1968

    Airgram from the Embassy of the US in Rio De Janeiro to the Department of State, 'Assessment of Brazilian Nuclear Device Capability'

    The US Embassy in Rio De Janeiro sends airgram to the Department of State with a technical and political assessment of Brazil's nuclear capacity.

  • May 16, 1968

    Telegram from the Consul of the US in Sao Paulo to the Department of State, 'Brazilian Centrifuge Program'

    Information about the classified Brazilian centrifuge program.

  • April 02, 1969

    Telegram to the President of Brazil on the Draft of the General Agreement on Cooperation in Science and Technology between Brazil and West Germany

    A Telegram/Cable sent by the Minister of External Relations, José de Magalhães, to the President of the Republic of Brazil, regarding the draft of the General Agreement on Cooperation in Science and Technology between Brazil and West Germany.

  • May 02, 1969

    Brief Study of Draft of the General Agreement on Science and Technology between Brazil and West Germany

    This document is an evaluation of the General Agreement on Science and Technology between Brazil and West Germany. It provides the guidelines of the Brazilian Nuclear Policy, which stimulated the continuation of programs, contacts and agreements in the nuclear field. Moreover, the document reveals that the Brazilian government understood that it needed the cooperation of foreign partners, like West Germany, in order to advance its nuclear program.

  • November 20, 1970

    Letter from Director of the Bureau of International Scientific and Technological Affairs Herman Pollack to Miller N. Hudson, Jr. at the US Embassy in Rio De Janeiro

    Miller thanks Pollank for his letter (attached) with historical background on Brazil's interest in developing nuclear weapons.

  • January 21, 1971

    Brazil's National Security Council Approves the Special Agreement between CNPq and the Nuclear Research Center of Jülich

    This document was written to the President of Brazil, confirming the Naitonal Security Council's approval of the Special Agreement between CNPq and the Nuclear Rewsearch Center of Jülich.

  • October 19, 1971

    Brief Study of Scientific Agreement on Nuclear Research between CNPq and the Nuclear Research Center of Jülich

    A document issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, this special agreement sought to deepen the scientific and technological cooperation between the two nations. This document differed from the Scientific and Technological Agreement previously celebrated in that the CNPq-KFA agreement was more specific, as it indicated which areas would be explored. It was signed directly with a center of nuclear research, clearly demonstrating Brazilian interest in the nuclear field.

  • April 11, 1972

    Cable from the President of Brazil of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy to the Secretary-General Confirming the Arrival of Dr. Klaus Scharmer of the Jülich Research Center

    This document was sent to the Secretary-General, confirming the arrival of Dr. Klaus Scharmer to Brazil. Dr. Klaus Scharmer was the head of the International Bureau of the Nuclear Center of Jülich, and his visit was part of an exchange program between Brazilian institutions and universities and the research center. Dr. Scharmer came to Brazil to discuss the implementation of the Special Agreement between CNPq and KFA, in addition to an analogous CNEN-KFA agreement. Dr. Scharmer toured nuclear research institutions in Belo Horizonte, Sãp Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.