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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • January 30, 1976

    Resolution 385 of the United Nations Security Council on Namibia

    UN Security Council resolution condemning South Africa's occupation of and presence in Namibia, and demanding, among other things, that South Africa end apartheid in Namibia and release its Namibian political prisoners.

  • September 29, 1976

    Discussion between SWAPO with Dr Henry Kissinger, US Secretary of State, in New York

    Dr. Kissinger expresses his proposal for a conference on Namibia to be attended by SWAPO (South West Africa People's Organization), Turnhalle members, and South Africa. The Conference concerned the ongoing struggle for independence by Namibian guerrillas from South African rule. Kissinger pledged US support to SWAPO as the leading force in Namibia, but Namibian delegates responded that they would not attend the conference unless South Africa met all preconditions including the withdrawal of troops from Namibian territory.

  • June 18, 1977

    SWAPO Press Statement, Delivered by D.T. Tjongarero at an Impromptu Press Conference in Windhoek

    Press statement by SWAPO accusing the West of stalling the UN resolution for Namibian independence, and of working with South Africa to exploit Namibia. Questions whether some aspects of the resolution have been ignored or discussed without consultation of Namibia.

  • October 12, 1977

    Memorandum of Conversation between Jorge Risquet and Sam Nujoma

    Jorge Risquet was the head of the Cuban Civilian Mission in Angola; Sam Nujoma was the president of SWAPO.

  • April 10, 1978

    Letter from the Representatives of Canada, France, Federal Republic of Germany, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America to the President of the UN Security Council on Proposed Resolution on Namibia

    Letter from Western powers delineating their plan for implementation of Security Council Resolution 365, on Namibian independence. Includes processes for holding elections, the creation of the United Nations Special Representative, and transition of power over to the government of Namibia.

  • May 12, 1978

    Memorandum of Conversation between Jorge Risquet and Sam Nujoma

    Jorge Risquet was the head of the Cuban Civilian Mission in Angola; Sam Nujoma was the president of SWAPO.

  • June 11, 1978

    Memorandum of Conversation between Jorge Risquet and Sam Nujoma

    Jorge Risquet was the head of the Cuban Civilian Mission in Angola; Sam Nujoma was the president of SWAPO.

  • July 27, 1978

    UN Security Council Resolution 432 on Walvis Bay and Namibia

    Resolution of the UN Security Council, supporting reintegration of Walvis Bay into Namibia's territory.

  • September 29, 1978

    UN Security Council Resolution 435 on Namibia

    UN Security Council Resolution reiterating its view of South Africa's presence in Namibia as illegal, and establishing a United Nations Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG) to support the UN Special Representative and help ensure free and fair elections in Namibia. Voids all actions and elections taken by South Africa's administration in Namibia.

  • October 05, 1978

    Memorandum of Conversation between Jorge Risquet and Sam Nujoma

    Jorge Risquet was the head of the Cuban Civilian Mission in Angola; Sam Nujoma was the president of SWAPO.

  • October 19, 1978

    Statement by South African Prime Minister P.W. Botha Regarding Talks with the Western Five (excerpts)

    Excerpts of a statement by P.W. Botha discussing South Africa's concern with the independence and security of its neighbors. Emphasizes South Africa's wish and ability to provide Namibia with continued money and infrastructure and warns against the threat that a Marxist Namibia would pose to the free world.

  • January 10, 1981

    Pre-implementation Meeting, Mr. Ahtisaari Answers to Questions, Version 1

    Answers to several questions, including the matters of returning refugees, demilitarization, and fair elections in Namibia.

  • January 10, 1981

    Pre-implementation Meeting, Mr. Ahtisaari Answers to Questions, Version 2

    Record of a pre-implementation meeting in Geneva between delegations from SWAPO and the South African administration of Namibia. SWAPO emphasizes its readiness to set dates for a cease fire and for arrival of the United Nations Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG). The South African delegation argues that, by recognizing only SWAPO, and not other parties in Namibia, the UN had proven itself impartial and refused to set definite dates.

  • January 19, 1981

    UN Security Council Report Concerning the Implementations of Resolutions 435 (1978) and 439 (1978) Concerning the Question of Namibia

    Report by the UN Secretary-General on the Geneva meeting between SWAPO and South African delegations. Notes that the meeting did not achieve its goals of designating a date for a cease-fire or for the implementation of the United Nations Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG). Points out that the meeting did succeed in informing parties of the UN's plans for implementation and as a demonstration of good faith.

  • April 15, 1981

    Memorandum of Conversation Between R. F. Botha and Chester Crocker of the US Department of State

    Leaked memorandum of conversation between "Pik" Botha and Chester Crocker. Botha questions how much South Africa can trust the United States to support the former in Namibia negotiations. He also raises concerns about the effects that a SWAPO victory in Namibia could have. Crocker reassures him on both subjects, based on the strength and resistance to pressure of the Reagan administration.

  • May 15, 1981

    Notes on Meeting between South African Minister of Foreign Affairs R. F. Botha and US President Reagan

    South African Minister of Foreign Affairs "Pik" Botha and President Reagan meet in Washington, DC. South African Ambassador Sole, the note taker, interprets Reagan's friendly opening comments as "the inference clearly being that he had no illusions about democratic rule in Africa." They discuss the situation in Namibia and Angola, and their shared opposition to Soviet and communist influence in the region. Botha also asks Reagan to help South Africa's souring relations with France regarding nuclear cooperation. Botha states that "South Africa was not preparing or intending to explode a nuclear device, but[...] could not afford publicly to surrender this option."

  • May 19, 1981

    Letter from South African Minister of Foreign Affairs R.F. Botha to US Secretary of State A.M. Haig Jr.

    Letter from R. F. "Pik" Botha to Alexander Haig, noting that the United States and South Africa have parallel goals in Namibia: the establishment of an independent state without a Marxist-socialist government. Lays out a list of qualities that the South African government wants to see in the new Namibian state.

  • June 11, 1981

    Letter from US President Reagan to South African Prime Minister P.W. Botha

    Reagan writes to South African Prime Minister R. F. "Pik" Botha regarding his meetings with the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Information, Pieter W. Botha (no relation). Reagan expresses hope that relations between the two countries will be more cooperative in the future, and states that although the Nambia issue has complicated that relationship, it "can also be an opportunity to help stem the growth of Soviet influence in the region."

  • August 18, 1981

    Letter from South African Foreign Minister R. F. Botha on Relations with the Reagan Administration

    Letter from South African Foreign Minister "Pik" Botha to South African Member of Parliament J.W.K. Wiley on relations with the United States. He notes that there has been a considerable change in policy since the Reagan administration took over from Carter, summarizing that "the Americans are not at present trying to make trouble for us," although that may change if progress is not made on South West Africa, i.e. Namibia.

  • 1982

    Principles for a Constitution for an Independent Namibia

    Declaration of the principles that will be incorporated into the new Namibian constitution.