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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • June 23, 1958

    Excerpt from ''Ordnance: Chronology of Historical Events, Volume 1''

    Excerpt from an internal Vietnamese army history which describes a 1958 shipment of weapons to Algeria to help the Algerian rebels fighting against the French.

  • 1959

    The Internationalization of the Algerian Problem and Its Inscription on the Agenda of the General Assembly of the United Nations from 1957-1959

    Detailed summary charting the development of United Nations debates and discussions about the Algerian problem, from 1957-1959, told from an Algerian perspective. Narrates the context and time-line of key events spurring four UN debates on the Algerian problem (from the first, in February 1957, to the fourth, in 1959). Focuses heavily on the foreign policy of France, under Charles De Gaulle's government, highlighting France's reluctance to negotiate, and recognize the independence of Algeria, and France's objections to the United Nation's recognition of Algerian independence.

  • September 01, 1960

    Letter to the GPRA Prime Minister, ‘Mission Summary’

    A letter to the Algerian Prime Minister, describing diplomatic meetings in Cairo with ambassadors from China and the Soviet Union. In meeting with Chinese ambassador, discusses China's delivery of supplies and war materials for Algerians, Chinese training of Algerian communications technicians, and economic arrangements between the two countries. In meeting with Soviet ambassador, Algerian ambassador requests a specific list of weapons provided by the USSR from 1956-58, and other general areas of Soviet assistance for the Algerian cause.

  • October 04, 1960

    Note from the GPRA Secretary General to Foreign Missions and Delegations, ‘Our Foreign Policy’

    A memo from Algeria's Secretary General to its foreign missions and delegations, regarding Algeria's foreign policy. Explains, first, Algeria's current position in regard to the "socialist camp," noting recent positive signs of improvements in Algeria's relationships with China and the Soviet Union. Identifies apprehensions within the western bloc that Algeria may slide toward the socialist camp, and gives instructions on how to respond to and reduce these apprehensions, so as to more fully broaden Algeria's base of support in its struggle against France. The memo recognizes that the western bloc is still supporting France in its fight to keep Algeria as a colonial subject, and recommends issuing an ultimatum to these western countries; either they cease complicity with France or be considered fundamentally hostile to the Algerian cause.

  • November, 1960

    Note from the GPRA General Secretary, ‘Issue: War Material'

    List of war materials sent from China to Algeria, to support Algerian fight against France.

  • November 08, 1960

    Report from the General Secretary, ‘Our Diplomatic Action’

    November 8th, 1960 memo explaining the status of Algerian diplomatic relations. Notes that Algeria's current diplomatic position is very strong, and one of its best assets. Warns that France will try to undermine foreign assistance to Algeria in order to isolate the GPRA in French-Algerian negotiations. Concludes by suggesting that Algeria maintain consultation with sympathetic countries before making decisions, to strengthen mutual trust and alliances. Gives a list of governments to consult before making major decisions, including all Arab countries, China, USSR, Vietnam, Guinea, Ghana, and Indonesia.

  • January 23, 1961

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the GPRA, ‘Declaration of the Algerian Delegation at the Council of the Organization for Afro-Asian Solidarity'

    A report from the GPRA's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, detailing a statement from an Algerian delegation at the Council of Organization for Afro-Asian Solidarity. The Algerian delegation first recognizes and justifies the support pledged by the Afro-Asian movement for the Algerian struggle, and places the Algerian struggle within the context of the larger Afro-Asian struggle against imperialism. The delegation then says that the Council must close a gap between solely verbal commitments (suggested to be made without accompanying action) and tangible support and action backing these commitments up.

  • March 19, 1961

    Development of Relations with Socialist Countries since March 19, 1961

    Report on meetings by the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic (GPRA) with heads of state of socialist countries.The Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia both pledge support and provided supplies to assist the GPRA.

  • March 19, 1961

    Annex #1 to 'Development of Relations with Socialist Countries since March 19, 1961'

    Recommendation that the GPRA closely monitor China's potential admission to the United Nations. Recognizes that the USSR's efforts to get China recognized by the UN, if successful, could lead to the normalization of Chinese-French relations, and withdrawal of Chinese support for Algerian struggle; advises Algeria to quickly create a diplomatic relationship with China to make this withdrawal more difficult.

  • March 19, 1961

    Annex #2 to 'Development of Relations with Socialist Countries since March 19, 1961'

    Report describing an upcoming Algerian governmental delegation visit to Beijing - with a planned stop in Moscow - as an opportunity for Algeria to seek support from Chinese and Soviet leaders in its struggle with France. Specifically mentions, among political goals, that the delegation should ask the Chinese and Russian governments to push for the governments of East Germany and Albania to officially recognize the GPRA.

  • March 19, 1961

    Report attached to 'Development of Relations with Socialist Countries since March 19, 1961'

    Report gauging Algeria's political possibilities among Eastern Bloc countries, with the exclusion of Yugoslavia. Begins with a summary of Marxist positions on national and colonial issues, followed by a detailed history, from 1922-1961, tracing the development of communist attitudes and policies toward the question of Algerian independence. Concludes with a comprehensive analysis of the contemporary (1961) status of international relations between GPRA and several blocs of socialist countries.

  • April 20, 1961

    Notes of Meeting between Boussouf, Benaouda, and Belhocine and the Chinese Ambassador

    Minutes of a meeting, on April 20, 1961, between Algerian representatives, Boussouf, Benaouda, and Belhocine, and a Chinese ambassador. In the meeting, which was called to discuss issues regarding weapons supplies from the Chinese, both sides discuss ensuing negotiations between Algeria and France. Also mentioned is Algeria's meeting with a United States ambassador, and the United States desire for compromise between Algeria and France.

  • May 16, 1961

    Summary of Meeting between Third Secretary Hassenkhe and Head of Socialist Countries Bureau Yaker

    Summary of 27 April 1961 meeting between East German Third Secretary, Hassenkhe, and Algerian Head of Socialist Countries Bureau, Layachi Yaker. Algerian government describes Algerian socialist organizations as "counter-revolutionary." Summary references East German establishment of Red Cross delegation in Morocco as unofficial channel for providing Algeria with material assistance.

  • June 17, 1961

    Summary of Meeting between Ambassador to Arab States Kiesewetter and General Secretary Belhocine and Head of Bureau Waker

    Summary of a June 17, 1961 meeting between Algeria (represented by General Secretary Belhocine and Head of Bureau Waker) and East Germany (represented by Ambassador to Arab States, Kiesewetter). The two sides discuss the suspension of the Evian negotiations between France and Algeria, East Germany's assistance for Algerian refugees in Morocco, and GDR-Algerian governmental relations. Ambassador Kiesewetter also expresses GDR's desire to peacefully coexist with West Germany in Berlin.

  • June 18, 1961

    Appendix to 'Summary of Meeting between Ambassador to Arab States Kiesewetter and General Secretary Belhocine and Head of Bureau Waker'

    Note from Algeria's Socialist Countries Bureau describing the June 17, 1961 meeting with the GDR Ambassador to Arab Countries. Note explains that the East German government is contemplating the unilateral "de jure" recognition of Algeria's government, and recommends that Algeria does not oppose this recognition.

  • 1962

    The Algerian Problem: Comparison with the Chinese Struggle

    Document comparing the Algerian struggle against France with that of China, arguing that the Algerian struggle cannot be compared, and is much more difficult than that of the Chinese. Asserts that Algerian situation is unique and unprecedented, in terms of colonized struggles, and that the Algerian revolution both represents, more generally, Africa's revolutionary hopes and that it has gained the support of communists, who hope to see Western powers swept from the African continent. Concludes by saying that Algeria's success rests on two factors; the FLN, and foreign support from anti-colonial forces from around the world.

  • January 18, 1962

    Note to the GPRA Minister of Foreign Affairs, ‘Mission to Cuba'

    Report from Lakhdar Brahimi -- GPRA representative at celebration of Cuban revolution in Havana -- on meeting with Fidel Castro and Che Guevara, both of whom express considerable interest in Algerian revolution. Fidel Castro pledges Cuban support, both material and diplomatic, advises Algeria on how to proceed in negotiations with France, and strongly encourages the opening of an Algerian diplomatic mission in Cuba. Brahimi concludes with recommendations on how best to respond to Cuban suggestions and an outline of potential strategic benefits from a diplomatic relationship between two countries.

  • January 31, 1962

    Letter from the GPRA Ministry of Foreign Affairs, ‘Confidential Note to the Heads of Missions and Delegations'

    Confidential note from Algeria's Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the heads of Algeria's diplomatic missions and delegations. The note, written in Cairo on January 31, 1962, focuses on the position that African and Asian countries currently hold at the center of a global struggle between colonialists and neo-colonialists. Points out that Algeria's struggle with France remains a focal point of reference for these countries, and that Algeria must clearly define its foreign policies and positions on international issues.

  • February 10, 1962

    Letter from the GPRA Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the GPRA Ministry of the Interior, ‘Material Assistance’

    1962 letter from Saad Dahlab -- Algerian Minister of Foreign Affairs -- to Algeria's Ministry of the Interior, detailing Albania's offer for material support for the Algerian cause.

  • December 12, 1963

    Memorandum of Conversation, Vladimir Koucky, Secretary of Czechoslovak Communist Party (CPCz) Central Committee, and Carlos Rafael Rodriguez, Head of Cuba’s National Institute of Agrarian Reform (INRA), Prague

    The memorandum includes topics discussed between CPCz Secretary Vladimír Koucký and Cuban government official Carlos Rafael Rodríguez. Rodríguez lists points of misunderstanding between Cuba and other socialist countries. Discussion topics include Chinese publications in Cuba, Cuba's unique approach to socialist revolution, the proposed nuclear-free zone in Latin America, and building socialism under various conditions (e.g. Islam's role in Algeria), among others. Rodríguez encourages more communication among socialist nations to prevent misunderstanding.