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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • July 14, 1961

    Memorandum of Conversation between Liu Shaoqi and R.K. Nehru

    Liu Shaoqi and R.K.Nehru discussed agriculture and the people's communes system.

  • July 16, 1961

    Chinese Communist Party Central Committee Decision with respect to Several Issues Concerning Strengthening Atomic Energy Industrial Infrastructure

    In order to rapidly strengthen its atomic energy industry, the Central Committee proclaims that China must dedicate further resources exclusively to nuclear-related activities. For this purpose, the report calls for the mobilization of students, scientists, public health officials, and industrial laborers; and the provision of factories, equipment, medicine, and hospitals.

  • July 17, 1961

    Memorandum of Three Conversations Between Director Zhang Wenji and the Indian Ambassador Regarding Sino-Indian Border Issues and the Two Countries’ Relations

    Three conversations between Zhang Wenji and Indian ambassador Parthasarathy, addressing the future of Sino-Indian relations, the Sino-Indian border issue, and India's policies toward Bhutan, Sikkim, and Pakistan.

  • July 17, 1961

    Memorandum of Conversation between Jozip Broz Tito and George F. Kennan

    Kennan reports on a conversation with Tito where they discussed the upcoming Belgrade Conference of Non-Aligned States.

  • July 17, 1961

    Memorandum of Conversation between Director Zhang Wenji and Indian Ambassador Parthasarathy (2)

    Zhang Wenji and Parthasarathy discuss how to best solve the differences of opinion on the Sino-Indian border held between China and India. Zhang and Parthasarathy discuss different methods and approaches, including a re-examination of historical facts around the Sino-Indian border, focusing on larger patterns and issues, and an emphasis on more detailed and current issues.

  • July 17, 1961

    Memorandum of Conversation between Director Zhang Wenji and Indian Ambassador Parthasarathy (1)

    Parthasarathy and Zhang Wenji hold an unofficial and informal discussion on the causes for the deterioration of relations between India and China in the last few years (before 1961). Both sides express a desire to improve relations, but also give reasons for grievances, mainly concerning public criticisms made in the press of one country toward the other, and specific disagreements regarding Sino-Indian border issues.

  • July 18, 1961

    Telegram of Delo Balili, the Albanian ambassador to Cairo, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    Balili reports that the Indian ambassador to Cairo had told him that President Nehru would participate personally in the conference of non-aligned countries because the main goal of the conference was to find a formula for rapprochement between the Soviet Union and the United States, and for disarmament in general. According to the Indian ambassador, the disappearance of the issues of colonialism and racial discrimination from the conference documents are not urgent problems. In November, Nehru would meet with Khrushchev and, later with Kennedy.

  • July 19, 1961

    Memorandum of Conversation between Director Zhang Wenji and Indian Ambassador Parthasarathy (3)

    Zhang and Parthasarathy continue their conversation on how to solve conflicts stemming from the Sino-Indian border dispute. The two discuss the best possible method to bring about compromise and agreement between the two sides.

  • July 19, 1961

    Memorandum of Conversation: Deputy Foreign Minister Geng Biao and Director Zhang Wenji with Indian Ambassador to China Parthasarathy

    Chinese Foreign Minister Geng Biao and Zhang Wenji have a conversation with Indian Ambassador Parthasarathy discussing current border disputes between India and China.

  • July 21, 1961

    Information Memorandum, Meeting between Albanian Ambassador to China Reis Malile and Comrade Dong Biwu

    Albanian Ambassador to China Reis Malile and Dong Biwu, a member of the CCP CC Politburo, talked about the economic condition in Albania, the issue of the removal of the Soviet military naval base from Vlora, and the concept of peaceful coexistence in Marxist-Leninism.

  • July 26, 1961

    Report on the 1st conference of the non-aligned countries of September 1st, 1961 sent by Tahmaz Beqari, the Albanian ambassador in Belgrade, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    The conference of non-aligned countries in Belgrade was organized when Indonesia and other countries of Asia and Africa were attempting to organize a Second Bandung Conference. Tito and Nehru, trying to minimize the influence of China in the Asian and African countries, initiated a conference that they called the Conference of Non-Aligned Countries in Belgrade. The document discusses the 24 participating countries, the agenda, the proceedings, the different groups among the delegation and the two main documents that the conference adopted: the manifesto and the declaration. The manifesto, titled “The Danger from the War and the Call for Peace,” according to the Albanian ambassador, was adopted in a revisionist spirit, calling on Khrushchev and Kennedy to maintain peace. Meanwhile, the declaration criticized colonialism and imperialism. The Belgrade conference did not decide on any specific issues and did not reach any important conclusions. In Albania, a week after the conference, the journal “Zeri i Popullit” (Voice of the People) wrote an article in which it identified Tito as an agent of imperialism and stated that Yugoslavia was not an non-aligned country as it participated in the Balkan Pact.

  • July 27, 1961

    Information on the Meeting with Comrade Chen Yi

    Chen Yi, Vice Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the PRC and a member of the CCP CC Politburo, met with the Albanian Ambassador to PRC Reis Malile about the relations between Soviet Union and other socialist countries, particularly China and Albania. They also talked about the Geneva Conference on Laos, the Soviet-US negotiation on the Laos issue, the Soviet economic assistance, and Chinese internal situations.

  • July 31, 1961

    Telegram from the Hungarian Embassy in Pyongyang, 'Preparations for the Korean Workers’ Party’s 4th Congress in the light of the press'

    Mátrai Pál reports that the "primary task of the Korean press currently is to publish the preparations for the 4th Party Congress."

  • August 01, 1961

    Telegram from Jovan Andoni, an official in the Albanian Embassy in Poland, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    Andoni reports that the advisor in the Cuban embassy in Warsaw had told him that he has not received any official information from the Cuban government and, according to him, Cuba would not participate in the conference of non-aligned countries in Belgrade.

  • August, 1961

    Information and Correspondence with Cuba Regarding Visit to Bulgaria of Cuban Children (including Fidel Castro’s child)

    The Bulgarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs reports on a visit of Cuban children to Bulgaria that is to receive no publicity.

  • August, 1961

    Note on Extending an Invitation to Escalante to Visit Bulgaria

    Dimo Dichev, Head of Foreign Policy and International Relations Department for the Bulgarian Communist Party's Central Committee, suggests inviting Cuban Communist leader Anibal Escalante to visit Bulgaria.

  • August 01, 1961

    Notes on the Conversation of Comrade N.S. Khrushchev with Comrade W. Ulbricht on 1 August 1961

    Transcription of a meeting in Moscow between Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev and East German leader Walter Ulbricht on August 1, 1961. They discuss plans to close the border between East and West Berlin. The document shows Khrushchev’s and Ulbricht’s deliberations about the reasons for sealing the border in Berlin, the timing for sealing the border and some of the difficulties they expected to arise therefrom.

  • August, 1961

    Italian Prime Minister Fanfani's Visit to Moscow, August 1961

    A series of talks between Fanfani and Khrushchev in Moscow in early August 1961. The focus of the talks is on the ongoing Berlin Crisis and "the German question." Other topics include relations between Italy and the Soviet Union, East/West tensions, and nuclear disarmament.

  • August 03, 1961

    Khrushchev's Speech at the Opening of the Meeting of Moscow Conference, 3-5 August 1961

    Khrushchev makes the opening statement to the secretaries of the CC's of Communist and Workers' Parties of Socialist Countries at a conference in Moscow. The purpose of the conference is to discuss the preparation and conclusion of a German peace treaty.

  • August 03, 1961

    Walter Ulbricht's Speech at the Moscow Conference, 3-5 August 1961

    Ulbricht speaks at the Moscow Conference of Secretaries of the Central Committees of the Communist and Workers' Parties of Socialist Countries for the Exchange of Opinions on Questions Concerning the Preparation and Conclusion of a German Peace Treaty.