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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • November 17, 1967

    Operation MANUEL: Origins, Development and Aims

    Comrade Josef Houska submits a document concerning issues related to cooperation with the Cuban intelligence service especially the Operation MANUEL to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. The Operational MANUEL started in 1962 when the Cuban intelligence asked the Czechoslovak resident in Havana to arrange a transit through Prague for Venezuelan nationals who underwent guerrilla training in Cuba. In 1964 talks were held between Cuban and Czechoslovak intelligence services but no formal agreement of the tasks and responsibilities was concluded between the two. The Soviet government was informed about the Operation MANUEL and stated its agreement with the project. Houska says that the main objective of the operation is the education and training of revolutionary cadres from Latin America and the organization of combat groups. Participants of the operation were not confined to cadres from among the ranks of communist parties but also included members from various nationalist and anti-American groupings. The routes of individual participants in the operation were determined by the Cuban intelligence service who mainly directed the Operation MANUEL. Houska says problems that arisen in the course of the operation were solved in collaboration with Cuban and the Soviet authorities. The document cautioned about counter-espionage institutions' increasing interests in the operation and the fact that the US intelligence service agents were among the operation participants. Houska says refusal to offer assistance would have a negative impact on Cuba and Czechoslovakia would lose control over the operation.

  • December 05, 1967

    Letter from the Director of Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) Uriel da Costa Ribeiro to the Director of the Argentinian National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) Oscar A. Quihillalt

    Ribeiro conveys the Brazilian interest in establishing a nuclear cooperation agreement with Argentina, expressed during the visit of the Brazilian mission to the inauguration of Ezeiza Atomic facility in Buenos Aires in 1967.

  • December 29, 1967

    Letter, Director of the Argentinian National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) to the Foreign Minister on Nuclear Cooperation with Brazil

    The Director of the Argentinian National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) writes to the Foreign Minister on a visit by a group of Brazilian officials and the details of a possible agreement for nuclear cooperation between the two countries.

  • 1968

    Draft Argentinian-Brazilian Agreement in the Field of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy

    Draft of a nuclear cooperation agreement between Argentina and Brazil, very likely the same one given by Brazilian authorities to the Argentinian National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) mission during the latter’s visit to Brazil in March 1968.

  • January 15, 1968

    Report, Argentinian Ministry of Foreign Relations, 'Nuclear Energy'

    State of nuclear energy development in Brazil and Argentina.

  • September 04, 1968

    Aide Mémoire, 'Sale of 5 Tons of Uranium to Brazil'

    A Brazilian diplomat to Argentina expresses an interest in acquiring five tons of uranium free from safeguards to Argentine authorities. CNEA and the foreign ministry of Argentina approved the request, taking into consideration the favorable diplomatic relations between the two countries at the moment.

  • December 20, 1968

    National Atomic Energy Commission Report to the Argentinian Ministry of Foreign Affairs on Brazil’s Request for Uranium

    This document reports on CNEA’s position on the exports of uranium to Brazil and reports that the operation will not produce any economic benefit. Nevertheless, it is favorable to the export as a token of Argentina’s good will in regard to nuclear cooperation with Brazil.

  • January 31, 1969

    Memorandum by Head of Planning Department of the National Atomic Energy Commission José Luis Alegria on Brazil’s Request for Uranium

    The document highlights that the export of Argentine uranium to Brazil will be a difficult operation due to diplomatic hurdles.

  • December 15, 1969

    Letter from the Director of the National Atomic Energy Commission Oscar A. Quihillalt to Argentine Foreign Minister Juan B. Martin

    Quihillalt suggests to the new Argentine foreign minister, Juan B. Martin, the formalization of the nuclear relationship with Brazil through the signature of a memorandum of understanding.

  • 1970

    Letter to the Secretary of the Central Committee of the Soviet Union, B. N. Ponomarev

    A letter describing the state of socialist and communist movements in Latin America with respect to their organized struggle against the imperial influence of the US. The letter indicates that the growth of youth, workers' and women's movements in Latin America is conducive to the development of stronger ties with the socialist countries around the world. The letter suggests that a strategic approach towards Latin America should be adopted in establishing cooperation in all spheres of life: economic, political, and cultural. An emphasis is placed on the gradual development of close relations with Latin American communist parties.

  • February 16, 1972

    Note from the Director of Argentinian National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) on a Possible Agreement with Brazil

    The director of CNEA, the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission, summaries past unsuccessful attempts to organize an agreement with Brazil for cooperation in the field of nuclear energy research.

  • September 20, 1973

    Letter from Indian Ambassador to Argentina

    Argentina’s stance towards the new regime in Chile

  • July 01, 1974

    Telegram, Brazilian Embassy in Buenos Aires, 'Visit of an Embassy Employee to the Nuclear Center [at] Atucha'

    Report from the Brazilian Embassy in Buenos Aires about the visit of Brazil’s Superior War College to the Atucha nuclear plant. There its director, Jorge Cosentino, explained the Argentine nuclear program in detail and expressed interest in finding formulas for cooperation with Brazil in the nuclear field.

  • September 08, 1974

    Explanatory Memorandum from the National Security Council to the President of Brazil

    Secretary-General of the National Security Council send the president of Brazil a report on attempts to establishing nuclear cooperation with Argentina in the period 1968-1974. In July 1974, on the occasion of the visit of a delegation from the Superior War College to the Argentine Atucha nuclear plant, its director, engineer Cosentino, proposed a cooperation agreement between the two countries with the objective of defusing concerns of the international community about a possible Brazil-Argentina rivalry. Despite the cautious reception of the Argentine proposal by the National Security Council, which also pointed out its possible advantages, President Geisel, in a manuscript note, said that there were several pending issues to be resolved before the establishment of nuclear cooperation between Brasília and Buenos Aires would become possible.

  • September 11, 1974

    Letter, Secretary-General of the National Security Council to the President of Brazil, on Nuclear Cooperation with Argentina

    Cover letter from an explanatory memorandum on a possible agreement of mutual cooperation in nuclear energy between Brazil and Argentina. Contains President Geisel's response to the opinion of the National Security Council about nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil. It concludes that the solution of pending issues with Buenos Aires should come before advancing in the nuclear field.

  • December 19, 1974

    Rajya Sabha Q&A on Indian Construction of an Argentinian Nuclear Power Plant.

    Transcript of questions and answers between members of the Rajya Sabha and the Minister of Atomic Energy, Shrimati Indira Gandhi, on the Indian construction of a nuclear power plant in Argentina.

  • December 18, 1975

    Memorandum to Holders of Special National Intelligence Estimate, SNIE 4-1-74: Prospects for Further Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    This estimate updates the 1974 predictions, and analyzes the “earliest dates of the technical feasibility of possession of a nuclear device” of the Republic of China, Pakistan, South Africa, The Republic of Korea, Argentina and Brazil, among others.

  • November 24, 1976

    Notes from President of Nuclebrás Paulo Nogueira Batista to the Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Relations

    Meeting among the members of the Ministry of Foreign Relations, the Ministry of Energy, the National Commission of Atomic Energy and the Council of National Security on a nuclear cooperation agreement proposed by CNEA. The objective of the agreement was to steer away doubts about a hypothetical nuclear competition between Brazil and Argentina, after Jimmy Carter was elected president in the US. Most participants of the meeting were contrary to a nuclear cooperation with Buenos Aires.

  • 1977

    Brazil Scope Paper: Implications of the Argentine Visit

    Cyrus Vance - apparently unintentionally - left behind this document while meeting with Brazilian President Geisel. It lays out US negotiations with Argentina to ratify the Treaty of Tlateloco, to accept full scope safeguards and to delay the construction of a reprocessing facility in exchange for US nuclear assistance and Brazil’s acceptance of a moratorium on the construction of a reprocessing facility.

  • February 11, 1977

    Telegram on Argentina's Stance Regarding a Brazil-West Germany Nuclear Cooperation Agreement

    A telegram received from the Brazilian Embassy in Ottawa, detailing Argentina's stance regarding a nuclear cooperation agreement between West German and Brazil.