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Digital Archive International History Declassified


  • July 22, 1968

    Memorandum from P. Shelest to CPSU CC, On Czechoslovak Delegation's Visit to Ukraine

    First Secretary of the Ukrainian Communist Party, Petro Shelest, reports on the visit of a delegation from Czechslovakia to Chernihiv oblast in northern Ukraine. During the visit, delegation members and Ukrainian officials argue about the Prague Spring and whether the democratization process at work was a positive force or a threat allowing anti-socialist elements an active role in Czechslovak society.

  • July 24, 1968

    P. Shelest Reports on a Meeting Between Ukrainian and Slovak Party Officials

    Petro Shelest reports to the CC CPSU on a meeting between Cde. V. G. Dykusarov and a secretary of the KSC’s East Slovakia regional committee, Cde. Jaromír Hetteš. Cde. J. Koscelanský, who usually appears on behalf of the Slovaks, was on vacation.

  • July 25, 1968

    Rajya Sabha Extended Debate on the Non-Proliferation Treaty Draft

    Transcript of debate between members of the Rajya Sabha and the Minister of State in the Ministry if External Affairs, Shri B. R. Bhagat, on the Non-Proliferation Treaty and why India has chose not to sign.

  • July 25, 1968

    Cipher Telegraph 2765-311/8, To Minister of National Defense of the Poland, Division General Cde. W. Jaruzelski

    This Soviet cipher message provides Polish military forces with specific instructions regarding the forthcoming joint military exercise in Poland and Czechoslovakia. The given details pertain primarily to Polish troop movements.

  • July 27, 1968

    Warsaw Pact Military Planning: To Division General Cde. Chocha

    Soviet General-Lieutenant Kozmin requests information from Polish General Chocha so that Soviet troops may pass through Polish territory.

  • July 27, 1968

    Cipher Telegram 2784-323/8, To Minister of National Defense of Poland, Division General Cde. W. Jaruzelski

    This Soviet cipher message gives orders to the Polish military leadership regarding the joint military exercise in Poland and Czechoslovakia.

  • July 27, 1968

    Directive of the Ministry of Defense for Exercise ‘OVERCAST SUMMER-68’

    Directive describes how the military exercise Overcast Summer-68 ["Pochmurne Lato"] will transpire on August 1 on the border of Poland and Czechoslovakia from 28 July to 5 August 1968 and states the logistics of the exercise. Information includes what groups will be used, their commanding generals, equipment, and first aid materials. The document also details how communications between all parties involved will function, as well as signal words and numbers that are to be used under various situations. Directive is signed by Minister of Defense and General of Divisions, Wojciech Jaruzelski.

  • July 28, 1968

    Cipher Telegram 2791-337/8, To the Commanding General of the Silesian Military District, copy to the Chief of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces

    The Soviet exercise control staff provides the Polish forces from the Silesian region with directions regarding the forthcoming military exercise. The Polish troops are ordered to maintain secrecy so as to avoid enemy intelligence gathering.

  • July 29, 1968

    Note on the Farewell Visit of the Polish Ambassador to the DPRK, Comrade Naperei, with Comrade Jarck on 26 July 1968 between 11:00 and 12:30 hours

    The German and Polish ambassadors in North Korea review clashes along the DMZ, the capture of the USS Pueblo, and the connections between Prague Spring and events in Korea.

  • July 29, 1968

    A Conversation with the 1st Secretary of the Embassy of the USSR in the DPRK, Comrade Zvetkov, and Comrade Jarck.

    With the lack of coal, coke, water, steel, and iron Kim Il Sung expresses the domestic problems in the DPRK to Comrade Novikov. He thanks the USSR for their aid and stresses the importance of the organization of Communist countries especially after the Pueblo incident.

  • July 31, 1968

    Proposal from Gen. V. Terziev on Changes in the Personnel of the Military Counterintelligence Directorate and Departments

  • August 01, 1968

    Memorandum to the Soviet Communist Party Secretariat Prepared by the Second Secretary of the Moldavian Communist Party

  • August, 1968

    Letter from Czech Communist Politicians to Brezhnev Requesting Soviet Intervention in Prague Spring

    In August 1968 a small group of pro-Moscow hardliners in the Czechoslovak Communist Party, led by Vasil Bilak, wrote two letters requesting urgent assistance from the Soviet Union to thwart the imminent "counterrevolution" in Czechoslovakia. Both letters were addressed to Leonid Brezhnev, the general secretary of the Soviet Communist Party (CPSU), and both were written in Russian to ensure that they would be read promptly. The first (and more important) letter was signed by Bilak and four of his colleagues: Drahomir Kolder, Alois Indra, Oldrich Svestka, and Antonin Kapek. Brezhnev later used the letter as a formal justification for the impending military invasion of Czechoslovakia.

  • August 03, 1968

    Shelest's Account of the Transfer of the 'Letter of Invitation'

    Excerpt from diary of the First Secretary of the Ukrainian Communist Party, Petro Shelest. Shelest describes arrangements to receive a letter from Vasil Bil'ak, a written appeal for urgent military assistance from the Soviet Union to thwart an imminent "counterrevolution" in Czechoslovakia.

  • August 08, 1968

    Note on a Conversation between the 1st Secretary in the USSR Embassy, Comrade Zvetkov, and Comrade Jarck on 7 August 1968 between 17:00 and 19:00 hours

    The East German Ambassador in the DPRK summarizes South Korea's revised and strengthened military policy in the wake of North Korea's provocations in 1968.

  • August 08, 1968

    Attaché Note from Prague on Events in Czechoslovakia from 28 July to 5 August 1968

    Memorandum from Chief of General Staff II General Oliwa to Chief of General Staff and Deputy Minister of National Defense, General Chocha. General Oliwa is sending a note from the Military Attaché in Prague assessing the events in Czechoslovakia from 28 July to 5 August 1968. The status of the party and public opinion on the party in Czechoslovakia is highlighted throughout.

  • August 09, 1968

    Internal Memorandum of the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Recognition of North Korea'

    Handwritten memorandum regarding a draft message to the Dutch Permanent Representation to NATO in Brussels, suggesting that the North Korean attempts at establishing contact should be mentioned for completeness.

  • August 09, 1968

    Cipher Telegram 2961-2330, To the commanding general of the 2nd Army of the Polish Armed Forces, copy to the Chief of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces, Division General Cde. B. Chocha.

    The Soviet exercise control staff provides the Polish forces with information regarding the upcoming joint military exercise.

  • August 15, 1968

    Report from the Bulgarian Ambassador in Havana, Stefan Petrov to Todor Zhivkov on the Domestic and Foreign Policy of Cuba

    The ambassador gives an assessment of the Cuban domestic and foreign policy. He characterizes Fidel Castro as an adventurer and points to certain communist party decisions that are incompatible with the Marxist-Leninist doctrine.

  • August 15, 1968

    Information from Bulgarian Ambassador in Havana Stefan Petrov to Bulgarian Leader Todor Zhivkov on the Domestic and Foreign Policy of Cuba

    Bulgarian Ambassador to Cuba Stefan Petrov analyzes Cuba’s domestic and foreign policies in an informational report to Bulgarian leader Todor Zhivkov. Petrov criticizes Cuban Communist Party policies and claims they are incompatible with Marxism-Leninism (e.g. Cuba’s focus on conflict between imperialism and national liberation rather than socialism and capitalism). Cuba has adopted an anti-Soviet attitude and believes Cuban leadership is the vanguard of communism. Petrov reviews Cuba’s conflicting relations with Latin American communist parties and Cuba's support to guerilla movements in the region. Petrov notes that Bulgarian-Cuban relations remain positive.