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Digital Archive International History Declassified


  • August 01, 1968

    Memorandum to the Soviet Communist Party Secretariat Prepared by the Second Secretary of the Moldavian Communist Party

  • August, 1968

    Letter from Czech Communist Politicians to Brezhnev Requesting Soviet Intervention in Prague Spring

    In August 1968 a small group of pro-Moscow hardliners in the Czechoslovak Communist Party, led by Vasil Bilak, wrote two letters requesting urgent assistance from the Soviet Union to thwart the imminent "counterrevolution" in Czechoslovakia. Both letters were addressed to Leonid Brezhnev, the general secretary of the Soviet Communist Party (CPSU), and both were written in Russian to ensure that they would be read promptly. The first (and more important) letter was signed by Bilak and four of his colleagues: Drahomir Kolder, Alois Indra, Oldrich Svestka, and Antonin Kapek. Brezhnev later used the letter as a formal justification for the impending military invasion of Czechoslovakia.

  • August 03, 1968

    Shelest's Account of the Transfer of the 'Letter of Invitation'

    Excerpt from diary of the First Secretary of the Ukrainian Communist Party, Petro Shelest. Shelest describes arrangements to receive a letter from Vasil Bil'ak, a written appeal for urgent military assistance from the Soviet Union to thwart an imminent "counterrevolution" in Czechoslovakia.

  • August 08, 1968

    Note on a Conversation between the 1st Secretary in the USSR Embassy, Comrade Zvetkov, and Comrade Jarck on 7 August 1968 between 17:00 and 19:00 hours

    The East German Ambassador in the DPRK summarizes South Korea's revised and strengthened military policy in the wake of North Korea's provocations in 1968.

  • August 08, 1968

    Attaché Note from Prague on Events in Czechoslovakia from 28 July to 5 August 1968

    Memorandum from Chief of General Staff II General Oliwa to Chief of General Staff and Deputy Minister of National Defense, General Chocha. General Oliwa is sending a note from the Military Attaché in Prague assessing the events in Czechoslovakia from 28 July to 5 August 1968. The status of the party and public opinion on the party in Czechoslovakia is highlighted throughout.

  • August 09, 1968

    Internal Memorandum of the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Recognition of North Korea'

    Handwritten memorandum regarding a draft message to the Dutch Permanent Representation to NATO in Brussels, suggesting that the North Korean attempts at establishing contact should be mentioned for completeness.

  • August 09, 1968

    Cipher Telegram 2961-2330, To the commanding general of the 2nd Army of the Polish Armed Forces, copy to the Chief of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces, Division General Cde. B. Chocha.

    The Soviet exercise control staff provides the Polish forces with information regarding the upcoming joint military exercise.

  • August 15, 1968

    Report from the Bulgarian Ambassador in Havana, Stefan Petrov to Todor Zhivkov on the Domestic and Foreign Policy of Cuba

    The ambassador gives an assessment of the Cuban domestic and foreign policy. He characterizes Fidel Castro as an adventurer and points to certain communist party decisions that are incompatible with the Marxist-Leninist doctrine.

  • August 15, 1968

    Information from Bulgarian Ambassador in Havana Stefan Petrov to Bulgarian Leader Todor Zhivkov on the Domestic and Foreign Policy of Cuba

    Bulgarian Ambassador to Cuba Stefan Petrov analyzes Cuba’s domestic and foreign policies in an informational report to Bulgarian leader Todor Zhivkov. Petrov criticizes Cuban Communist Party policies and claims they are incompatible with Marxism-Leninism (e.g. Cuba’s focus on conflict between imperialism and national liberation rather than socialism and capitalism). Cuba has adopted an anti-Soviet attitude and believes Cuban leadership is the vanguard of communism. Petrov reviews Cuba’s conflicting relations with Latin American communist parties and Cuba's support to guerilla movements in the region. Petrov notes that Bulgarian-Cuban relations remain positive.

  • August 17, 1968

    Stenographic transcript of meeting of the Executive Committee of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party

    Ceausescu relates his recent meeting with Dubcek in Prague in August 1968. His talks with Dubcek focused primarily on the events that had unfolded in Czechoslovakia over the last several months.

  • August 20, 1968

    Secret Decree of the Council of Ministers of the PR of Bulgaria for the Participation of Bulgarian Troops in the Warsaw Pact Operation in Czechoslovakia

  • August 20, 1968

    Report No. 10 from Generals Pavlovsky and Kovalov to Brigadier General Florian Siwicki

    General Pavlovsky writes to the Commander of the Polish Second Army, Brigadier General Florian Siwicki. He lists preliminary steps in Operation Danube where the troops enter from Poland into Czechoslovakia.

  • August 20, 1968

    On the Troops’ State of Readiness

    Report given out by the Polish Army General Staff regarding the state of Polish combat troops for the intervention in Czechoslovakia. States that the armies are in full readiness and are ready to move toward Czechoslovakia at any time. An overview of the area in Czechoslovakia that they are invading is also given at length.

  • August 21, 1968

    Protocol No. 5 of the Meeting of the Executive Committee of the CC of the RCP on the situation in Czechoslovakia

    Summary of the meeting of the Executive Committee of the CC RCP, on the situation in Czechoslovakia. The Romanian leadership decides to publically express its astonishment at the actions of the five Warsaw Pact member states participating in the invasion of Czechoslovakia.

  • August 21, 1968

    Report, Embassy of Hungary in the Soviet Union to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry

    Report on the results of Indian President Zakir Hussain's visit to Moscow, including discussion of Soviet-Indian relations broadly and India's relations with Pakistan, as well as on Soviet efforts to pressure India to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).

  • August 21, 1968

    Letter from the Central Committees of the Bulgarian, East German, Hungarian, Polish, and Soviet Communist Parties regarding the Warsaw Pact intervention in Czechoslovakia

    Letter from the Central Committees of the Communist Parties of East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria and the Soviet Union explaining the need for intervention in Czechoslovakia. The letter lays out the rationale behind the Brezhnev Doctrine.

  • August 21, 1968

    Record of the Meeting of the Executive Committee of the CC of the RCP concerning the situation in Czechoslovakia

  • August 22, 1968

    CIA-State Consultations on Czechoslovak Crisis

    Consulted by Cord Meyer, Deputy Undersecretary of State Charles Bohlen approves RFE’s cautious approach to covering the Soviet invasion and also agrees to use of RL transmitters to reach Soviet troops in Czechoslovakia

  • August 22, 1968

    Prague Embassy Urges Caution on Radio Free Europe and Voice of America

    In Prague Embassy Dispatch No. 3079, Ambassador Jacob Beam urges the US Radios to provide factual reporting and neither encourage nor discourage Czechoslovak youth opposed to the invasion

  • August 22, 1968

    Rajya Sabha Q&A on Soviet Criticism of India for it's Refusal to Sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

    Transcript of questions and answers between members of the Rajya Sabha and Prime Minister, Shrimati Indira Gandhi, on the legitimacy of claims that the U.S.S.R hascriticised India for not signing the draft of nuclear non-proliferation treaty through its newspaper "Izvestia".