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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • November 24, 1989

    Speech by Premier Ladislav Adamec at the Extraordinary Session of the Czechoslovak Communist Party Central Committee

    This transcript shows the Czech party elites choosing against violent repression of the mass protests in Wenceslas Square. More clearly than in almost any other Party document, the reasons for nonviolence are spelled out: such a solution would only temporarily "return calm," it would radicalize the youth, "the international support of the socialist countries can no longer be counted on," and "the capitalist states" might react with a "political and economic boycott."

  • November 26, 1989

    List of Goals by the Civic Forum, 26 November 1989

    The Civic Forum, the organizing voice for Czech opposition groups during the Velvet Revolution, outlines their goals for a future Czechoslovak Republic. This includes new program goals including individual rights, the political system, foreign policy, national economy, social justice, the environment, and culture.

  • November 28, 1989

    Ciphered Telegram No. 219, Embassy of Hungary in Pakistan to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry

    Short report on India's response to Pakistan's purchase of a nuclear reactor from China.

  • November 28, 1989

    Teleprint, Information on the Conclusions of Nationwide Party Congress held in Prague

    The objectives of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia are outlined, as a result of the nationwide party congress on 28 November in Prague.

  • November 28, 1989

    Internal Organization of the Civic Forum

    Internal organization of the Civic Forum – structure, function, and areas of concern

  • November 28, 1989

    The Position of the Civic Forum and Public Against Violence Toward the Negotiations with Czechoslovak Prime Minister Ladislav Adamec, Prague

    The Position of the Civic Forum and Public Against Violence Toward the Negotiations with Czechoslovak Prime Minister Ladislav Adamec, Prague, discussing demands for condemnation of 1968 invasion and promises made by the Prime Minister to the Civic Forum

  • November 28, 1989

    Decision About the Measures Regarding the Decision of the KGB Collegium of the USSR of 5 September 1989, 'About the Tasks of the State Security Services of the USSR Regarding the Defense of the Soviet Constitutional Regime'

    In response to the increase of anti-Soviet and Romanian nationalist propaganda, the Moldavian KGB decides to form a new organization, Section 3, "to provide a principled basis for the activity concerning the defense of the Soviet constitutional regime." Detailed instructions are given for the new Sections operations and activities.

  • November 29, 1989

    Instructions of the Coordinating Center of the Civic Forum for the Local Forums with a Recommendation for Policy Toward the Communists, Prague

    Instructions of the Coordinating Center of the Civic Forum for the Local Forums with a Recommendation for Policy Toward the Communists and information on how to deal with Communists infiltrating the Civic Forum branches

  • December 02, 1989

    Notes by A. S. Chernyaev, Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and George H. W. Bush at Malta Summit

    George H.W. Bush and Gorbachev meet off the coast of Malta in a meeting that came to symbolize the end of the Cold War. While no agreements were concluded, the leaders decided to press ahead in the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START), as well as in efforts to reduce arsenals of chemical weapons and conventional forces in Europe. Bush also made a number of proposals to advance bilateral relations, including steps to normalize trade relations through the granting of most-favored nation status, efforts to bar Congressional restrictions on credits, and US support for Soviet observer status at the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

  • December 02, 1989

    US Memorandums of Conversation, George H. W. Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev at Malta Summit, 2-3 December 1989

    US transcripts of Bush and Gorbachev's conversations on board the Soviet cruise ship, Maxim Gorky, off the coast of Malta.

  • December 04, 1989

    Rezső Nyers’s handwritten Notes on Gorbachev’s Briefing on the Malta Summit at the Meeting of the Warsaw Pact Leaders in Moscow on 4 December

    Unofficial hand-written notes by Rezső Nyers, President of the Hungarian Socialist Party, taken took during a briefing by M. Gorbachev at a Soviet Bloc summit in Moscow on 4 December, just a day after the meeting with President Bush at Malta.

  • December 04, 1989

    Minutes of Conversation between Gorbachev and Romanian Leader Ceausescu

    Minutes of Conversation between Soviet leader Michael Gorbachev and Romanian leader Nicolae Ceausescu on the status of the East European regimes and Soviet-Romanian bilateral relations. The two leaders discuss the history of Communism, the events taking place in other East European countries, the future of Romania and the Soviet Union and the nature and state of bilateral relations between the two countries.

  • December 05, 1989

    Record of Conversation between M. S. Gorbachev and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the FRG H.D. Genscher

    Record of a conversation between M.S. Gorbachev and H.D. Genscher discussing Helmut Kohl's Ten Points. Genscher expresses interest in negotiating with FRG and passing reforms in the GDR.

  • December 06, 1989

    Rezső Nyers’s Typed Notes to Miklós Németh on Gorbachev’s Briefing on the Malta Summit on 4 December

    An official report by Nyers about the Malta Summit prepared for Prime Minister Miklós Németh.

  • December 06, 1989

    Record of Conversation between M. S. Gorbachev and President of France F. Mitterand

    Gorbachev and Mitterand discuss with concern German unification and Helmut Kohl's 10-point plan.

  • December 06, 1989

    Report of the Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs [F. Somogyi] for the Council of Ministers about the Meeting of the leaders of the Warsaw Pact on 4 December

    Summary of the meeting of the leaders of the Warsaw Pact. The document is not signed, but it is highly likely it was authorized by Ferenc Somogyi, Deputy Minister of the Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, who was present at the meeting in Moscow.

  • December 07, 1989

    Telegram from the Romanian Embassy to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    Telegram from the Romanian Embassy to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding the special plenary session of the CC of the CPB to deal with demands by the ‘Bulgarian Democratic Forces Association’ to have free elections and a multi-party system

  • December 07, 1989

    Information Note from the Romanian Embassy in Berlin to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    Information Note from the Romanian Embassy in Berlin to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding the resignation of Egon Krenz, the scheduled Extraordinary Congress of the SED and its planned break with Stalinism, the beginning of ‘warning’ strikes, and the general movement of the GDR towards forming a federation with the FRG

  • December 10, 1989

    Information Note from the Romanian Embassy in Sofia to the [Romanian] Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    Note from the Romanian Embassy in Sofia to the [Romanian] Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding street protests in Bulgaria due to disapproval with the measures adopted by the special plenum of the CC CPB

  • December 11, 1989

    Letter from CPSU General Secretary Mikhail S. Gorbachev to Afghan Government

    Gorbachev discusses the necessity of intra-Afghan peace talks. At the same time, the Soviet Union will provide military assistance, weapons, and aircraft to Afghanistan to retaliate against opposition.