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Digital Archive International History Declassified


  • May 31, 1957

    Department of State Office of Intelligence Research, 'OIR Contribution to NIE 100-6-57: Nuclear Weapons Production by Fourth Countries – Likelihood and Consequences'

    This lengthy report was State Department Bureau of Intelligence and Research's contribution to the first National Intelligence Estimate on the nuclear proliferation, NIE 100-6-57. Written at a time when the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom were the only nuclear weapons states, the “Fourth Country” problem referred to the probability that some unspecified country, whether France or China, was likely to be the next nuclear weapons state. Enclosed with letter from Helmut Sonnenfeldt, Division of Research for USSR and Western Europe, to Roger Mateson, 4 June 1957, Secret

  • July 11, 1957

    Handwritten Letter from Nie Rongzhen to Zhou Enlai on the Development of the Atomic Energy Industry

    A letter to Zhou Enlai informing him that the industrial development plan for China's atomic energy program has not been finalized and that the technical agreement with the Soviet Union must be delayed.

  • July 22, 1957

    Report No. 124 from Ho Joon Park to Chung Whan Cho

    Minister Park briefs Minister Cho on the 250 million dollars economic development loan provided in the reparations agreement, possibility of the revision of the US-PI bases agreement, and the establishment of an atomic energy research center in Quezon City.

  • August 12, 1957

    Letter from Zhang Wentian to the Soviet Chargé Concerning the Development of the Atomic Energy Industry

    A letter from the Chinese Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs to the Soviet Chargé informing him that revisions must be made to the “Agreement on the Provision of Technical Assistance from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics to the People’s Republic of China in Establishing an Atomic Energy Industry,” and that until it is revised the delivery of technical equipment should be delayed.

  • September, 1957

    Letter, South African Charge d’Affaires in Vienna, 'South African Developments in the Atomic Energy Field'

    E.G. Fourie of the South African Department for Foreign Affairs writes to Charge d’Affaires Donald Sole about recent developments in the South African nuclear problem. He informs Sole that earlier that year the Government of Iran, through the British Embassy in Tehran, requested that Iranian engineers be sent to South Africa for training in uranium prospecting and extradition.

  • October 07, 1957

    Statement Delivered by D. B. Sole, Leader of the South African Delegation at the Opening of the General Debate of the First General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    The South African Charge d'Affaires in Vienna writes to Pretoria about talking points from the General Debate in a conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency. He encloses a copy of the speech the leader of the South African delegation, D. B. Sole, gave to open the Debate.

  • October 18, 1957

    Letter, South African Charge d'Affaires in Vienna, 'Production of Heavy Water in South Africa'

    The South African Charge d'Affaires in Vienna requests information on reported preparations to produce heavy water in South Africa.

  • October 22, 1957

    Journal of Soviet Ambassador to the DPRK A.M. Puzanov for 22 October 1957

    Nam Il informs Puzanov of the leadership's approval of a display of a Soviet mobile scientific and technical exhibit on the peaceful use of atomic energy in Pyongyang.

  • November, 1957

    Events of Ukrainian Republican Committee of Peace Protection Devoted to Issue of Stopping the Nuclear Test and Prevention of the Nuclear War

    This document lists events which the Ukrainian Republican Committee of Peace Protection planned to hold during November 1957 in order to propagate against the nuclear tests and nuclear war. For example, on November 25, 1957 Committee planned to organize meeting of the medical scientists; on November 23 it planned to hold meeting of scientists of Lvov; on November 20 – 25 Committee was going to hold meeting of workers of Odessa seaport etc.

  • November 26, 1957

    Letter, South African Atomic Energy Board, 'Production of Heavy Water in the Union'

    The Deputy Chairman of South Africa's Atomic Energy Board sets out the present position in regard to the manufacture of heavy water in the Union.

  • December 10, 1957

    Letter, Nikolai Bulganin to Dwight D. Eisenhower

    Bulganin proposes a halt on nuclear tests among the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom beginning on January 1, 1958.

  • December 15, 1957

    Announcement from the Chinese Government Supporting the Soviet Union's Suggestion for Peace

    The Chinese Government endorses a proposal by the Soviet Union for the USSR, the US, and the UK to halt nuclear weapons tests.

  • January, 1958

    A. J. A. Roux, Director of Atomic Energy Research Programme, 'Proposed Atomic Energy Research and Development Programme for South Africa'

    Dr. A.J.A. Roux sets forth his proposal for the South African nuclear proposal.

  • January, 1958

    Memorandum by Robert Schaetzel to Max Kohnstamm, 'Points to be Presented to Euratom Commission'

    This memo to Max Kohnstamm includes several points pertaining to the United States' anticipated comprehensive agreement with Euratom to be presented to the Commission.

  • 1958

    Information about Conducting in Ukraine of Month’s Campaign of Joint Actions of the People against the Nuclear Weapon and for Universal Prohibiting of the Nuclear Tests for Ever and Ever

    This document describes the monthly anti-nuclear campaign held in Ukraine from September to October, 1958. During this campaign, a number of mass meetings were organized. In this meetings, scientists lectured on the damage of nuclear tests and danger of nuclear war. The lecturers argued that only western states were responsible for conducting nuclear tests and initiating the nuclear arms race, and that the Soviet Union was forced to develop its nuclear capabilities to protect socialist countries, even though the Soviets support the idea of prohibiting the nuclear weapon.

  • March 28, 1958

    Conversation of Mao Zedong with Soviet Ambassador Pavel Yudin (Excerpt)

    In a conversation with Soviet ambassador Yudin, Mao sees a prohibition of the use of hydrogen weapons as very likely, as the capitalist countries "[fear] fighting this kind of war." Further, he notes that the socialist countries have an advantage over Western ones in terms of conventional army size.

  • April, 1958

    Note on Control by the Joint US-Euratom Working Party

    This memo details security controls established under the Euratom Treaty to guarantee that nuclear materials are not diverted for purposed other than those for which they are intended.

  • April 04, 1958

    Letter from Nikita Khrushchev to Zhou Enlai on the Prohibition of Nuclear Testing

    Khrushchev writes to Zhou outlining the Soviet Union's argument for the need to halt the testing of atomic weapons, and urges the Chinese to support and agree to the ban.

  • April 18, 1958

    Letter, John D. Cockcroft, UK Atomic Energy Authority, to Homi Bhabha

    John D. Cockcroft of the UK Atomic Energy Authority answers questions from Homi Bhabha regarding nuclear research and includes the text of a lecture he gave regarding the development of nuclear power in the UK.

  • April 28, 1958

    From the Journal of Gromyko, Record of a Conversation with Ambassador Ri Sin-Pal of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea

    Soviet Minister of Foreign Affairs Andrei Gromyko records that North Korea was eager to start a nuclear program, though they insisted it was for “peaceful purposes.” The North Korean Ambassador requested Soviet scientific aid and was informed by Gromyko that the request would “undoubtedly be considered in a favorable spirit.”