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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • November 20, 1989

    The Civic Forum’s Exposition of its Position in Public Life with a Call for Nonviolence, Tolerance and Dialogue, Prague

    The Civic Forum’s Exposition of its Position in Public Life with a Call for Nonviolence, Tolerance and Dialogue, Prague

  • November 20, 1989

    Cable from US Embassy in Prague on Czech Demonstrations

    Cable from the US embassy in Prague reports on an American woman's account of the November 17 demonstrations and the death of a Czech student.

  • November 20, 1989

    Cable from US Embassy in Prague on Czech Demonstrations

    Cable from the US embassy in Prague reporting on the establishment of a new organization for Czech independents, the "Civic Forum," and the publication of a list of demands.

  • November 20, 1989

    Cable from US Embassy in Prague on Czech Demonstrations

    Cable from the US embassy in Prague reporting on contradictions in the Czechoslovak press coverage of the demonstrations' aftermath.

  • November 20, 1989

    Cable from US Embassy in Prague on Czech Demonstrations

    Cable from the US embassy in Prague reporting that demonstrations continued over the weekend in Prague.

  • November 20, 1989

    Cable from US Embassy in Prague on Czech Demonstrations

    Cable from the US embassy in Prague reporting on their protest regarding attacks on American journalists during the November 17-19 demonstrations in Prague.

  • November 20, 1989

    Information Note from the Romanian Embassy in Berlin to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    Note from the Romanian Embassy in Berlin to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding the state of the internal political situation in the GDR, the uncertainty of the future of the GDR, protests by citizens of the GDR in front of the Romanian embassy and the need for change in Romanian apporaches to relations with the GDR

  • November 20, 1989

    Czechoslovak Ministry of Interior Memorandum, 'Information Regarding the Development of the Security Situation During the Period of the 17 November Anniversary'

    Internal and external anti-communists have been protesting and organizing mass demonstrations in Prague, destabilizing the political situation in Czechoslovakia. The peak of the social unrest occurred on 17-19 November. It is concluded that the political, economic, and foreign pressure, as a result of these events, have provoked the start of political change in the CSSR.

  • November 21, 1989

    The Civic Forum’s Position on the Negotiations of its Representatives with Prime Minister Ladislav Adamec, Prague

    The Civic Forum’s Position on the Negotiations of its Representatives with Prime Minister Ladislav Adamec, Prague

  • November 21, 1989

    Letter from the Civic Forum to US President George Bush and USSR General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev

    Letter from the Civic Forum to US President George Bush and USSR General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev calling for condemnation of the 1968 events

  • November 21, 1989

    Cable from US Embassy in Prague on Czech Demonstrations

    Cable from the US embassy in Prague reporting on continued demonstrations in Prague and other Czech cities on November 20.

  • November 21, 1989

    Cable from US Embassy in Prague on Czech Demonstrations

    Cable from the US embassy in Prague reporting on the morning demonstration in Wenceslas Square and overheard conversations.

  • November 21, 1989

    Cable from US Embassy in Prague on Czech Demonstrations

    Cable from the US embassy in Prague reporting on the student strike situation.

  • November 21, 1989

    Teleprint from the Presidium of the CC CPS to the Secretaries of Regional Committees of the CPCz [and] CPS and the Party Municipal Committees in Prague and Bratislava

    The Presidium reports recent anti-socialist disturbances in Prague, with the organizers allegedly influencing and manipulating the public, especially targeting students. It is emphasized that the CPCz and CPS must maintain order, and affirm the socialist position through media outlets.

  • November 21, 1989

    Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Prime Minister of Canada Brian Mulroney.

    Gorbachev and Mulroney discuss US interference in Eastern Europe and increasing cooperation with Western Europe. They also briefly discuss George Bush's leadership.

  • November 23, 1989

    Declaration of Civic Forum Representative Václav Havel on Wenceslas Square, Prague

    The Declaration of Civic Forum Representative Václav Havel on Wenceslas Square, Prague calling for a general strike

  • November 23, 1989

    Teleprint, 'Summary of the Demands Made by Opposition Groups Represented by the Civic Forum'

    The demands for reform by the Civic Forum and the anti-communism movement in Czechoslovakia are outlined, in regards to the legal system, political system, economy, and a general re-structuring of power. The general decline in support of the CPCz and growth of support for opposition groups is apparent.

  • November 23, 1989

    Teleprint from Jozef Lenárt, Secretary of CC CPS, to Regional Committees and Municipal Committees in Prague and Bratislava

    Lenart presents information on an upcoming strike, planned by a now-unified organization of protesters called the Civic Forum. He reports the demands of the Civic Forum, explicated in their proclamation.

  • November 24, 1989

    Draft Thesis of the Program of the Civic Forum, Prague

    Draft thesis of the program of the civic forum, Prague advocating a market economy to help remedy the ‘vassal’ system of the Communist Party and the crisis facing Czechoslovakia

  • November 24, 1989

    Speech by Premier Ladislav Adamec at the Extraordinary Session of the Czechoslovak Communist Party Central Committee

    This transcript shows the Czech party elites choosing against violent repression of the mass protests in Wenceslas Square. More clearly than in almost any other Party document, the reasons for nonviolence are spelled out: such a solution would only temporarily "return calm," it would radicalize the youth, "the international support of the socialist countries can no longer be counted on," and "the capitalist states" might react with a "political and economic boycott."