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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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China-Europe Relations

Europe and China were perhaps the most important "third actors" in the Cold War system. As territorial entities and political and economic actors located at the crossroads of the mutual spheres of action of the two superpowers, they played a key role in the evolution and reshaping of the bipolar system. This comprehensive collection charts China's relations with Europe, and as it moved from East to West throughout the course of the Cold War. For collections focused on China's relations with Eastern and Western Europe, see, respectively, China-Eastern Europe Relations and China-Western Europe Relations.

  • January 18, 1950

    Telegram, Mao Zedong to Liu Shaoqi

    Mao Zedong gives Liu Shaoqi guidance on Chinese foreign policy towards the United States and Great Britain.

  • September 13, 1954

    [Mao Zedong's] Reply After Receiving the Credentials of Albania's Ambassador [to China]

    Mao welcomes the first Ambassador from Albania to the People's Republic of China and celebrates the bonds between their two countries.

  • September 30, 1954

    Minutes of the Conversation between Vice Premier Li Xiannnian and the Head of the Albanian Government Delegation Behar Shtylla

    Li Xiannian and Shtylla discuss cooperation between Albania and the PRC.

  • January 05, 1955

    Transcript of Conversation between Zhou Enlai and Humphrey Trevelyan

    Zhou Enlai discusses with Trevelyan Humphrey about China's concerns with Britain's attitude change regarding Sino-Britain relations. Zhou says that the Chinese side is willing to improve Sino-British relations and improve the situation in East Asia nd ease international tensions. Zhou also discusses with Humphrey the Taiwan issue. He criticizes the U.S. for infringing upon Chinese sovereignty over Taiwan and Britain for its double standards on the Taiwan issue.

  • February 25, 1955

    Abstract of Conversation: Chinese Premier Zhou receives Trevelyan

    Zhou Enlai and Trevelyan debated on the nature of the Manila Treaty and its implications for the Geneva Agreement.They also discussed the issue of the Dai Autonomous Region between China and Thailand and the legal status of Taiwan.

  • March 08, 1955

    Gazette of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, 1954, No. 3 (Overall Issue No. 3)

    This issue covers a meeting between the Chinese and Burmese prime ministers. It also includes letters that a Chinese government delegation and Enver Hoxha exchanged for Albania's tenth anniversary. In terms of domestic policy, among other topics, it provides instructions for issuing bonds to help build the nation's economy, regulations for arrest and detention, and regulations for urban residence committees.

  • September 10, 1955

    Gazette of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, 1955, No. 14 (Overall Issue No. 17)

    This issue begins with orders related to grain conservation. It also includes a statement regarding the departure of Japanese who stayed in China after World War II and documents that address China's exclusion from the Inter-Parliamentary Union. Other sections cover cooperation between Chinese and East German scientists, Sino-Egyptian trade negotiations, and regulations for graduate students in the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  • December 12, 1955

    Gazette of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, 1955, No. 21 (Overall Issue No. 24)

    This issue first reiterates rules that prohibit local officials from offering transportation, banquets, or gifts to Party, government, and military personnel during visits or inspections. It also includes a statement about the first meeting of the Sino-Bulgarian Cooperative Science and Technology Committee and reports that discuss Sino-Japanese relations. Other sections cover wages, bank deposits, Mandarin-language education, and support for children's activities related to the "Little Five-Year Plan."

  • December 21, 1955

    Gazette of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, 1955, No. 22 (Overall Issue No. 25)

    This issue includes a report about trade between China and Syria as well as an announcement from the Sino-Czechoslovakian Cooperative Science and Technology Committee. Other sections discuss the management of religious work, industry, and the organization of different bureaus, including the Central Archives, within the State Council.

  • January 09, 1956

    Gazette of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, 1956, No. 01 (Overall Issue No. 27)

    This issue begins with a joint declaration from China and the German Democratic Republic about their Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation. It also discusses an encounter in which South Korean naval ships shot at and attempted to seize Chinese fishing boats. Other sections cover an agreement to import rice from Myanmar in exchange for Chinese goods, agriculture, and tax exemptions for medical organizations.

  • February 16, 1956

    Gazette of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, 1956, No. 06 (Overall Issue No. 32)

    This issue highlights the Standing Committee's resolution to approve the Sino-East German Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation. It also addresses road maintenance and the conservation of gasoline. Other sections discuss the promulgation of simplified Chinese characters, the promotion of standard Mandarin (putonghua), and the distribution of books in rural areas.

  • August 16, 1956

    Gazette of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, 1956, No. 30 (Overall Issue No. 56)

    This issue covers a Sino-Lebanese trade agreement. It also features a letter that Zhou Enlai wrote to thank the government of Czechoslovakia for agricultural machinery. Other sections address Chinese support for the recently nationalized Suez Canal, transforming private industries into socialist ones, and assigning jobs to university graduates.

  • October 23, 1956

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Hungary, ‘The 8th Plenum of the Polish Party Central Committee has met with a Great Response in Hungary’

    The Chinese Embassy in Hungary reports on the responses to the 8th Plenum of the Polish Party Central Committee published in Hungarian newspapers.

  • October 24, 1956

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Hungary, ‘Summary of the Counterrevolutionary Rebellion taking place in the Hungarian Capital’

    The Chinese Embassy in Hungary provides an update on developments in the Hungarian "counterrevolutionary rebellion."

  • October 26, 1956

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Hungary, ‘The Situation in the Hungarian capital following the Outbreak of the Counterrevolutionary Rebellion’

    The Chinese Embassy in Budapest reports that the "counterrevolutionary rebellion in the Hungarian capital became increasingly serious after midnight last night"

  • October 28, 1956

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Hungary, ‘Please Inform Us of the Appropriate Attitude towards the Hungarian Events’

    The Chinese Embassy in Budapest asks, "how are we to respond" to the events ongoing in Hungary.

  • November 02, 1956

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Hungary, ‘The Hungarian Paper Justice Incorrectly Interpreted Our Statement’

    The Chinese Embassy in Budapest reports that the "counterrevolutionaries intentionally misinterpreted" China's stance on the events in Hungary

  • November 02, 1956

    Cable from the Chinese Foreign Ministry, ‘On Our Attitude towards Hungary’

    The Chinese Foreign Ministry says that "'much listening, little speaking' is necessary” with regards to the Hungarian Revolution.

  • November 02, 1956

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Hungary, ‘On the Meeting between Imre Nagy and Ambassador Hao Deqing’

    The Chinese Embassy in Hungary provides a lengthy report on the talks between Imre Nagy and Hao Deqing.

  • November 02, 1956

    Record of Conversation from Premier Zhou’s receiving of the Hungarian Ambassador to China Ágoston Szkladán on his Farewell Visit

    Zhou Enlai and Hungarian Ambassador to China Ágoston Szkladán discuss the ongoing Hungarian Revolution, and Szkladán asks for economic assistance from the other Communist countries for this issue.