Search in
ADD SEARCH FILTER CANCEL SEARCH FILTER

Digital Archive International History Declassified

No image found.

China-Europe Relations

Europe and China were perhaps the most important "third actors" in the Cold War system. As territorial entities and political and economic actors located at the crossroads of the mutual spheres of action of the two superpowers, they played a key role in the evolution and reshaping of the bipolar system. This comprehensive collection charts China's relations with Europe, and as it moved from East to West throughout the course of the Cold War. For collections focused on China's relations with Eastern and Western Europe, see, respectively, China-Eastern Europe Relations and China-Western Europe Relations.

  • July 08, 1967

    Memorandum of Conversation between comrade Enver Hoxha and a Delegation of Chinese Red Guards

    Enver Hoxha announces that China's Red Guards have "risen to defend the Communist Party, Chairman Mao Zedong, and socialist China."

  • August 16, 1967

    Stenographic Note held during the Conversation between Chairman Mao Zedong and Vangjel Moisiu and Myfit Mushi in Shanghai

    Mao Zedong discusses the Cultural Revolution with a delegation from Albania.

  • October 09, 1967

    CSSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs No. No. 026.235/67-3, 'Information about Most Recent Measures against the Activities of the Representative Office of the Chinese People’s Republic'

    Account of measures taken in response to provocative activities of the CPR (threats, propaganda, restrictions on freedom of movement, etc) and objectives in pursuing these responses.

  • January 18, 1968

    Note Number 48 from Louis de Guiringaud to His Excellency M. Couve de Murville, 'Relations between Communist Countries'

    Describing problems amongst communist countries, the Polish Ambassador to Japan reports that "Mao Zedong considered himself as the heir of the Chinese Emperors and treated the Ambassadors as such." The Ambassador also describes kidnappings carried out by the North Korean government.

  • May 06, 1968

    Cable from the CSSR Embassy, Peking, 'Thesis and Proposals for the Development of an Action Plan of the Communist Party and Government of Czechoslovakia regarding the Relations between Czechoslovakia and Chinese People’s Republic'

    Proposals for Communist Party action regarding the CPR activity, including overall objectives in the CSSR-PRC relationship, general foreign policy outlook, and specific measures like fighting against the theory of "two Chinas."

  • July 08, 1968

    Political Report No.12 from the Embassy of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, Peking

    Account addressed to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding gradual normalization of communications and relations with China, including conclusions and recommendations for future policy like removal of limits on free movement by the Chinese representative office in Prague.

  • September 03, 1968

    Note Number 291 from the Department of Asia-Oceania, 'China and the Events in Czechoslovakia'

    The Department of Asia-Oceania analyzes shifts in Chinese foreign policy toward Eastern Europe following the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 and connects the apparent changes in Beijing's diplomacy to the Sino-Soviet split and the Vietnam War.

  • September 07, 1968

    CSSR Embassy Peking, 'Position of the Chinese People’s Republic regarding the Occupation of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, Comments in CPR Press and the Attitude of CPR Organs toward Our Representative Office in Peking'

    Account of the CPR's position regarding the Soviet occupation of the CSSR through press statements and statements by officials.

  • November 20, 1968

    Telegram Number 2206/09, 'NATO Ministerial Council'

    French diplomat Lucien Paye assesses Chinese foreign policy in the aftermath of the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia and speculates that China wishes to exploit differences within the NATO camp.

  • November 27, 1968

    Italian Policy towards the People’s Republic of China

    An Italian Foreign Ministry report on future policies leading to Italy's recognition of the People's Republic of China and Beijing's admission to the United Nations.

  • December 18, 1968

    Memorandum from Department Head Egon Bahr, 'Establishment of Relations with the Communist States in Asia'

    Bahr discusses the possibility of West Germany establishing relations with China, Mongolia, North Korea, or North Vietnam.

  • December 20, 1968

    Note from the Director General of Political Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Chinese Issue'

    The Italian Foreign Ministry reviews changes in Chinese foreign policy and approaches Italy ought to take towards normalization relations with China.

  • January 30, 1969

    Note Gérard de la Villesbrunne to the Foreign Minister, 'New Interest of Western Diplomacy towards China: Hopes and Illusions'

    The French Consul General in Hong Kong notes a spike in China's diplomatic activities with Western Europe, Japan, and the U.S., but concludes that China, "still concerned by internal questions, does not seem to be willing to respond to the openings of non-communist countries with as much enthusiasm as hoped for in the West."

  • February 07, 1969

    Secret Note from the Italian Embassy in Paris to Rome

    Via the Italian Embassy in Paris, the Chinese Government indicates that it is willing to establish diplomatic relations with Italy as long as three general principles are adhered to.

  • February 07, 1969

    Handwritten Note from the Minister of Foreign Affairs

    In response to a note from the Chinese Embassy in Paris, Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs Pietro Nenni acknowledges that there is only China.

  • April 25, 1969

    Telegram Number 1797/1800, 'Chinese Foreign Policy'

    The French Ambassador to London reports that China is eager to open up diplomatic relations with Italy and Canada and to enter into negotiations with the United States.

  • May 16, 1969

    Note Number 399 from Pierre Cerles to Michel Debré, 'China and Eastern Europe'

    Pierre Cerles provides an assessment of Chinese foreign policy toward Eastern Europe during the 1960s within the context of the Sino-Soviet split, the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, the Cultural Revolution, and China's own internal leadership divisions.

  • June 12, 1969

    Note Number 760 from Geoffroy Chodron de Courcel to Michel Debré, 'Chinese Foreign Policy'

    The French Ambassador in Great Britain reports new details on border clashes between China and the Soviet Union in Xinjiang-Kazakhstan, Chinese diplomacy in the Third World and with the West, and the state of Sino-British relations.

  • June 23, 1969

    Note from Department Head Ruete, 'Meeting with the Bonn Xinhua Representative on June 13, 1969'

    A West German diplomat meets with a Xinhua correspondent to discuss China's relations with Bonn

  • June 26, 1969

    Letter from Mario Crema to Pietro Nenni

    Crema outlines the current trends of Chinese foreign policy as Chinese mission leaders abroad gradually return and border tensions with the USSR arise.