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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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China, 1989

This collection features sources on the Tiananmen Square massacre of 1989 and other developments in China at the end of the Cold War. For other collections on China’s modern political history, see: Chinese Civil War, 1945-1950; Purges in 1950s China; China’s Great Leap Forward, 1958-1961; China’s Cultural Revolution, 1966-1976; and Reform and Opening in China, 1978-. (Image: Communist Party General Secretary Zhao Ziyang speaks with fasting university students in Beijing's Tiananmen Square early Friday May 19, 1989, to urge them call off their hunger strike. The strike is in its sixth day. (AP Photo/Xinhua) )

  • May 19, 1989

    Notepad of Teimuraz Stepanov-Mamaladze, 19 May 1989

    Notes from Teimuraz Stepanov-Mamaladze, covering discussions between Deng Xiaoping, Zhao Ziyang, and Viktor Karpov. The Chinese side discusses Deng's role against the student unrest going on in China, and the punishment of protestors attempting to storm the building of the All Chinese Congress of People's Representatives.

  • May 26, 1989

    Telegram from the Romanian Embassy in Beijing to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    Telegram from the Romanian Embassy in Beijing to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding the possible power struggle within the Chinese government and attitudes towards the demands of the students

  • May 29, 1989

    Statement of the Communist Party of Italy

    This document dated May 29, 1989, is a statement by the Italian Communist Party in which it expresses solidarity for Chinese students, workers and popular forces who are demanding greater democracy.

  • May 29, 1989

    Telegram No. 048 443 from the Czechoslovak Embassy, Beijing

    Ambassador Eduard Saul recommends that Czechoslovakia more actively support the Chinese Communist Party.

  • May 30, 1989

    Telegram No. 048 517 from the Czechoslovak Embassy, Beijing

    Saul reports on the movements of demonstrators at Tiananmen Square as well as the latest statements by the CCP leadership.

  • June 01, 1989

    Telegram No. 048 629 from the Czechoslovak Embassy, Beijing

    Saul reports that Zhao Ziyang has been effectively removed from office.

  • June 01, 1989

    Telegram No. 048 626 from the Czechoslovak Embassy, Beijing

    The Czechoslovak Ambassador in Beijing reports on the latest meetings with Chinese officials and the activities of demonstrators at Tiananmen Square.

  • June 02, 1989

    Telegram No. 048 725 from the Czechoslovak Embassy, Beijing

    Saul describes the economic situation in China in the context of the Tiananmen Square protest movement.

  • June 02, 1989

    Telegram No. 048 727 from the Czechoslovak Embassy, Beijing

    Saul indicates that the Chinese military will be called upon to clear Tiananmen Square.

  • June 02, 1989

    Telegram No. 048 724 from the Czechoslovak Embassy, Beijing

    Saul describes divisions amongst the demonstrators at Tiananmen Square.

  • June 03, 1989

    Information Note from Romanian Embassy in Beijing to Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    Information Note from Romanian Embassy in Beijing to Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding the situation in Tiananmen Square and the return of students to classes

  • June 03, 1989

    Information Note from Romanian Embassy in Beijing to Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    Information from the Romanian Embassy in Beijing to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding the measures to be taken by the Chinese government as a result of the Tiananmen Square crisis and the possible direction in which China will move as a result

  • June 04, 1989

    Information Note from Romanian Embassy in Beijing to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 03:30 am

    Information Note from Romanian Embassy in Beijing to Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding the routing of demonstrators from Tiananmen Square

  • June 04, 1989

    Telegram from Romanian Embassy in Beijing to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 03:15 am

    Telegram from Romanian Embassy in Beijing to Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding the increased mobilization of tanks, armored trucks and paratroopers to clear the protest in Tiananmen Square, with the reported number of deaths and injuries

  • June 04, 1989

    Telegram from Romanian Embassy in Beijing to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 03:00 am

    Telegram from Romanian Embassy in Beijing to Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding the events in Beijing as troops attempted to reach Tiananmen Square to end the protest

  • June 04, 1989

    Telegram from Romanian Embassy in Beijing to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 04:15 am

    Telegram from Romanian Embassy in Beijing to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding the return of several PRC officials who had been absent for a number of weeks

  • June 04, 1989

    Telegram from the Romanian Embassy in Beijing to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 05:45 am

    Telegram from the Romanian Embassy in Beijing to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding the arrival of 25,000 soldies to Tiananmen Square and the removal of students from the Square

  • June 05, 1989

    Telegram No. 048 821 from the Czechoslovak Embassy, Beijing

    Saul reports on the aftermath of the Tiananmen Square crackdown.

  • June 07, 1989

    Information Note of Romanian Embassy in Beijing to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    Note from the Romanian Embassy in Beijing to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding the situation in Beijing in the aftermath of Tiananmen Square and the institution of restrictive measures under the rubric of martial law

  • June 09, 1989

    Untitled report from Mieczysław Dedo, Polish Ambassador to the DPRK, concerning North Korea’s attitude towards Tiananmen Square protests

    According to Polish reports from Pyongyang, the North Korean leadership interpreteted the Tiananmen Square protests in Beijing in relation to lack of monolitic unity among the Chinese leadership and China's reform policies.