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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1950-1959

This is a collection of primary source documents focusing on the Sino-Soviet alliance from 1950 through 1959, or the period prior to the split. For other collections on Sino-Soviet relations, see Making of the Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1945-1950; Sino-Soviet Split, 1960-1984; Sino-Soviet Border Conflict, 1969; and Sino-Soviet Rapprochement, 1985-1989.

  • March 05, 1950

    Letter, Molotov to Zhou Enlai

    Molotov thanks Zhou Enlai for the birthday wishes.

  • April 13, 1950

    Telegram from Zhou Enlai to Nikolai Bulganin

    Zhou Enlai requests and gives deadlines for the sending of aviation equipment and personnel from Moscow, mentioning that China is anticipating military conquests of the Danshan and Jinmen islands.

  • May 03, 1950

    Telegram, from Filippov [Stalin] to Mao Zedong

    A message to Mao stating that Mao's requests for aviation equipment, naval equipment and consultants were received and that these requests will be met as soon as possible.

  • May 06, 1950

    Telegram from Zhou Enlai to Wang Jiaxiang

    The Chinese side is anxious for the dispatchment of advisors and ammunition that was requested from the Soviet Union, for use in aviation institute drills and for military campaigns in Dinghai, Jinmen, and Taiwan.

  • May 13, 1950

    Cable from Roshchin to Stalin, Relaying Mao's Request for Clarification on North Korea Taking Action Against South Korea

    The telegram relays a request from Mao, conveyed via Chinese Foreign Minister Zhou Enlai, seeking Stalin’s “personal clarifications” of his stand on a potential North Korean action to reunify the country. Mao sought the information after hearing a report from Kim, who had arrived that day in the Chinese capital for a secret two-day visit and clearly claimed that he had received Stalin’s blessing.

  • May 13, 1950

    Telegram from Zhou Enlai to Nikolai Bulganin

    Zhou Enlai presses Moscow to accelerate the dispatchment of requested equipment and personnel by the specified deadline so that the Chinese air force and navy can prepare for the military campaign to seize Zhoushan Island.

  • May 14, 1950

    Ciphered Telegram, Roshchin to Cde. Filippov [Stalin]

    Soviet Ambassador to China N.V. Roschin relays a Chinese assessment of the armed forces in North Korea and South Korea and the possibility of China and North Korea signing a treaty of friendship, alliance, and mutual aid.

  • May 14, 1950

    Ciphered Telegram No. 8600 from Vyshinsky to the Soviet Embassy in Peking

    The cable contains Stalin’s personal response to Mao's 13 May telegram. Using the code-name “Filippov,” Stalin confirms his agreement with the North Korean proposal to “move toward reunification,” contingent on Beijing’s assent.

  • May 16, 1950

    Telegram from Filippov (Stalin) to Mao Zedong via the Soviet ambassador

    Stalin notifies Mao Zedong that he believes the signing of a treaty pact between China and North Korea should only come after Korean reunification.

  • July 05, 1950

    Ciphered telegram from Stalin to Zhou Enlai via Roshchin

    A telegram from Stalin to Zhou Enlai with regards to India's mediation in the PRC's entry into the UN, Chinese troop movements in preparation for a possible Southern/Allied counterattack, and Soviet planes flying over Manchuria.

  • July 08, 1950

    Ciphered Telegram No. 3231, Filippov (Stalin) to Soviet Ambassador Roshchin

    Telegram from Stalin to Beijing advising that they send a representative to Korea.

  • July 11, 1950

    Telegram from the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee to Gao Gang

    Due to the Korean situation, the Soviet government requests the use of air and railway transport through China, to which the Chinese side agrees.

  • July 25, 1950

    Ciphered Telegram No. 13645 from Vyshinsky to Roschin

    Telegram relaying message from Stalin to Mao and Zhou Enlai agreeing with proposal to train Chinese pilots on Soviet jet planes.

  • August 27, 1950

    Ciphered telegram, Filippov (Stalin) to Zhou Enlai

    Telegram from Stalin to Zhou Enlai answering his request for military advisors.

  • October 05, 1950

    Letter, Cde. Filippov [Stalin] for Mao Zedong

    Stalin describes the US inability to engage in a "big war" and encourages Kim in his fight against the US. He also discusses the domestic situation in China.

  • October 07, 1950

    Ciphered Telegram No. 25348, Roshchin to Filippov [Stalin]

    Ambassador Roshchin passes a message from Mao to Stalin regarding the Chinese deployment of troops to Korea.

  • October 10, 1950

    From the Journal of Gromyko, Memorandum on Conversation with Chinese Ambassador Peng Dehuai

    Talks about Ambassador Peng Dehuai's request to send 738 Korean students, of higher education, to Soviet summer schools.

  • October 11, 1950

    Cable No. 4785, Filippov [Stalin] and Zhou Enlai to the Soviet Ambassador in Peking

    Instructions for the Chinese army in light of the fact that the Chinese forces designated to assist Korea are not ready.

  • October 12, 1950

    Ciphered Telegram No. 25553, Roshchin to Filippov [Stalin]

    Mao Zedong has already given orders to halt Chinese troops preparing to cross the Korean border.

  • October 13, 1950

    Telegram, from Gromyko to Stalin

    Account of the reception of the Chinese Ambassador Peng Dehuai. He requested that all Korean undergrad and graduate students be admitted to the Soviet summer schools, as well as Korean specialists who receive production and technical training in industrial settings the USSR (a total of 738 people). Gromyko notes that there are differences between the requests of Dehuai and Kim Il Sung, and that Dehuai has been asked to speak to Kim Il Sung, and clear up the differences.